Details of the Jhana Absorptions spoken by the Buddha:

Some core Canonical References on attaining the Jhāna absorptions:

Sutta Pitaka:
Digha Nikāya: sutta #2 [i 73-77], #9 [i 182-184].
Majjhima Nikāya: s
utta #8 [i 41-2], #39 [i 276-8], #77 [15-7], #111 [iii 25-9], #119 [iii 92-4].
Samyutta Nikāya: The whole two Jhāna Samyuttas no: 34 and 54.
Anguttara Nikāya: II [125-8, 193-6], III [22-6, 311, 427-8], IV [34, 406-40], V [207-9, 342-258].

Abhidhamma Pitaka:
The Dhammasangani: The Classification of States: 169-364, 505-55, 996.
The Book of Analysis: Vibhanga: Chapter XII Analysis of Jhana pp 319-56, [244-275].
Points of Controversy: KathaVatthu: The questions on hallucinations, hearing, talking,
transitions, and intervals in between and while in jhana. a.o...
Conditional Relations: Patthāna: Jhāna is the 17th out of the 24 relations.

Some excellent commentarial explanations on the Jhāna absorptions:
The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga. 5th century AC. Chapter III-XI
The Path of Freedom: Vimuttimagga ~ 1st century BC. Chapter IV-VIII

Most  Neatly Summarized in: The Jhanas In Theravada Buddhist Meditation
by Venerable Maha-Thera Henepola Gunaratana BPS: Wheel No. 351/353: