By Ven. Chuen Phangcham, Ph.D., Midwest
Buddhist Meditation Centre.
When Buddhism was first established in ancient India, there were few monks and
These monks normally did not stay in fixed places or temples but rather spent
most of their
time moving from one place to another as it was their mission to spread the
teachings of the
Buddha for the happiness and welfare of all people and living beings.
In those days, there were no paved roads, so during the rainy season when the
experienced heavy and frequent rainfall, their travels were often impeded and
In this season, the farmers also cultivated their land and planted new crops.
Because travel was inconvenient, The Buddha allowed his disciples to stop
take up temporary abodes during the rainy season.
In Pali, this season is called vassa, meaning the "Rains Retreat" and it extends
lunar months. It begins on the 15th day of the waxing moon of the 8th Lunar
ends on the 15th day of the waxing moon of the 11th Lunar Month.
This corresponds approximately from early July through late of October in the
calendar. In this year, 2012, the Rains Retreat started on July
3rd, and ends
About four or five years after attaining Enlightenment, the Buddha was dwelling
Jetavana Mahā Vihāra near Sāvatthi City, the capital of the Kosala kingdom ruled
A group of thirty monks who had been ordained by the Buddha himself came from
city east of Sāvathi just after the three months Rains Retreat Observance to
Buddha. The Buddha greeted them, asked them about their retreat and journey, and
their wet and torn robes. The lady disciple of the Buddha, Visakha Mahā Upāsikā
there visiting and listening to the Buddha expounds the Dhamma. When she saw the
tattered and worn robes, she asked permission of the Buddha to offer new robes
monks, and the Buddha granted her request. Since then the Buddha granted the
opportunity to search for robes in various places and even to accept robes
donors during the period of one month from the middle of the Eleventh Lunar
Month to the
middle of the Twelfth Lunar Month. This period is called Kathina.
As there were no sewing machines or textile factories in those days, the
robes for monks required a lot of manpower and coordination. It could not be
done in a
The Buddha realized this problem and allowed his lay disciples to prepare and
for any monks who needed them. The process required searching for appropriate
washing it, cutting it, sewing the pieces together into robes, coloring the
robes, and drying
them. After that, the robes were distributed to the monks who needed them with
consent of the Sangha, the community of the Monks.
Nowadays, lay followers prepare robes for the monks but not in the same way as
done in the time of the Buddha. They are two ways in which monks may obtain
(1). by searching for them in various places like cemeteries, cities, and towns,
or (2) by
accepting offerings of robes from the people.
The Kathina ceremony takes place during the month immediately following the full
of October (from the beginning of waning moon of the Eleventh Lunar Month to the
beginning of waxing moon of the Twelfth Lunar Month).
According to Vinaya Pitaka, the Theravada Book of Discipline, during the three
period from mid-July to mid-October, monks are required to take up a settled
and are allowed to leave their encampments only under special conditions.
In this environment, the wandering mendicant nature of the Buddhist monk began
In particular, a number of customs and practices of a collective life, including
recitation of rules and the distribution of robes, became incorporated into the
of monastic life.
These ceremonies have continued through the ages and have evolved from culture
The traditions of Theravada Buddhism spread throughout Southeast Asia as
the favor of ruling monarchs in Burma, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Theravada
expanded greatly in Thailand under the patronage of King Ramkhamhaeng.
Today in Thailand, the Kathina ceremony provides one of the most popular
merit-making. The Buddhist people celebrate this robe- offering ceremony with
respect and devotion to the monks, who have just spent three months in the
observing the Vassā (Khao Pansā in the Thai, Lao, and Cambodian languages) –the
Retreat. In rural Thailand, everybody in a village will participate in the
Kathina ceremony as
a community activity which may last anywhere from one day to as many as three
All Buddhist monks and fully ordained nuns in all parts of the world observe the
Retreat during this period, though in certain countries the custom has been
Buddhist monks in Thailand, Lao, Cambodia, Burma, and Sri Lanka however continue
observe the Rains Retreat in the traditional Theravada way.
The author has proposed the idea to the American Buddhist Congress of shifting
observance of the Rains Retreat to occur from December to March in North
American Buddhist Congress has found the idea appealing, but such a change would
approval by senior monks from the Thai Sangha.
Why have I proposed this idea? Because during this period North America
heavy snow and bad winter weather which makes it very difficult for monks to
perform their missionary duties of spreading the Dhamma to all living beings.
Among the Buddhist of Southeast Asia, there is a very grand festival at the end
observance of the Rains Retreat. People offer food to the monks in monasteries
prepare the special yellow robes that are offered to the Sangha.
This special offering is called the Kathina Offering Ceremony. It is done only
period of time starting from the end of Rains Retreat to the first day of the
of the 12th Lunar Month, as previously mentioned.
Benefits of Kathina Offering:
1. Monks who receive the offerings and the members of the Sangha, can go from
place for their Dhamma works and meditation practice without needing to inform
in the monastery.
2. Monks do not need to carry a complete set of robes when they go anywhere to
their religious duties.
3. Monks can have their breakfast and lunch in different places offered by
donors without breaking their monastic rules (Vinaya).
4. They can keep other robes according to their wishes for more than ten days
breaking monastic rules.
5. The robes offered to them by donors are suitable and good for them, so they
their time to search for another set of robes for four months through out fall
6. The Buddhist followers support and help the monks to maintain the Buddhist
and tradition for world peace.
7. Those who support the Monks and the Sangha are always happy, joyful, and
8. They promote Buddhist Teachings in Western society where people are Seeking
food for their hearts, and need spiritual and moral training.
9. The Monks have no worry about searching for cloth to make their robes, and in
they have more time to concentrate on their Dhamma study and meditation
can serve more people in their communities.
10. The donors cultivate generosity, perform charity, and exhibit selflessness.
11. The donors follow the noble way of life and maintain a humane society on
planet. They are the source of peace and happiness for the world.
Where is Kathina Ceremony observed?
The Kathina ceremony is observed by Buddhist people in all parts of the world,
not only in
the Asian countries, but also in Europe, USA, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia.
According to Buddhist tradition, the robes prepared on this occasion were
to the Monks who had old and torn robes which were insufficient to protect
The robes were made by the "Sangha", under the idea of coordination
harmony, and participation in religious and monastic service.
The process of making the robes was completed in one day, beginning with making
cutting, sewing, washing, colouring, drying, and organizing it into a set of
three. Then, with
agreement of the Sangha, the robes were offered to the monks through the
Kathina Ceremony therefore is a community activity that needs to be performed in
This is the Buddha's idea of collaboration and harmony, of care and the loving
way of the
compassionate heart for community and social development and for human society
whole. Buddha Vihara, the Midwest Buddhist Meditation Center as a new community
coordination, collaboration and harmony, (Sukha Sanghassa Samaghi Samaghanang
Sukho. Harmonious activity of the community is the source of happiness).
= The 1st mental perfection: