BUDDHIST DICTIONARY

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-C-

Cāga: 'generosity', is one of the 'blessings' see: sampadā 'foundations' see: adhitthāna, recollections' see: anussati, treasures' see: dhana.

Cakka: 'wheel', is one of the seven 'precious possessions' ratana of a righteous World Emperor cakkavatti'He who owns the Wheel,' cf. D. 26, and symbolizes conquering progress and expanding sovereignty. From that derives the figurative expression dhamma-cakkam pavatteti, he sets rolling the Wheel of the Law' and the name of the Buddha's first sermon, Dhamma-cakkappavattana Sutta see: dhamma-cakka.

Another figurative meaning of C. is 'blessing'. There are 4 such 'auspicious wheels' or 'blessings': living in a suitable locality, company of good people, meritorious acts done in the past, right inclinations A. IV, 31.

bhāva-cakka 'wheel of existence', or of life, is a name for 'dependent origination' see: paticca-samuppāda.

See The Buddhist Wheel Symbol, by T. B. Karunaratne WHEEL 137/138; The Wheel of Birth and Death, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo WHEEL 147/149

Cakkhāyatana: 'the base;visual organ; ' see: āyatana.

Cakkhu: 'eye' see: āyatana The foll. 5 kinds of 'eyes' are mentioned and explained in CNid. PTS, p. 235; the first 3 also in It. 52: 1. the physical eye mamsa cakkhu. the divine eye dibba-cakkhu see: abhiññā,. the eye of understanding paññā-cakkhu the eye of a Buddha buddha-c.,. the eye of all-round knowledge samantac.; a frequent appellation of the Buddha.

Cakkhu-dhātu: 'the element;visual organ; 'see: dhātu.

Cakkhu-viññāna: 'visual-consciousness' see: viññāna.

Fermentations: see: āsava.

Carana: see: vijjā-carana.

Carita: 'nature, character'. In Vis.M III there are explained six types of men: the greedy-natured rāga-carita the hate-natured dosa-carita the stupid or dull-natured moha-carita the faithful-natured saddhā-carita the intelligent-natured buddhi-carita the ruminating-natured vitakka-carita App..

Cāritta-sīla: and Vāritta-sīla: 'morality consisting in performance and morality consisting in avoidance,' means;the performance of those moral rules which the Blessed one has ordained to be followed, and the avoidance of those things that the Blessed One has rejected as not to be followed; Vis.M III. - App..

Catu-dhātu-vavatthāna: 'analysis of the four elements'; see: dhātu-vavatthāna

Catu-mahārājika-deva: a class of divine beings of the sense-sphere; see: deva.

Catu-pārisuddhi-sīla: see: sīla.

Catu-vokāra-bhava: 'four-group existence', is the existence in the immaterial world arūpa-loka see: loka since only the four mental groups feeling, perception, mental constructions, consciousness, see: khandha are found there, the materiality group being absent. Cf. pañca-vokāra-bhava, eka-vokāra-bhava App.: vokāra.

Cause: cf. paccaya 1. - For the five c.: of existence, see: paticca-samuppāda 10.

Cemetery: ascetic practice of living in a c.; see: dhutānga.

Cemetery-meditations: see: sīvathikā.

Cetanā: 'intention', will, is one of the seven mental properties cetasika inseparably bound up with all consciousness, namely sensorial or mental contact phassa feeling vedanā perception saññā intention cetanā, concentration samādhi vitality jīvita directing manasikāra Cf. Tab. II, III.

With regard to kammical intention i.e. advantageous or disadvantageous kamma it is said in A. VI, 13:;intention is action kamma, thus I say, o Bhikkhus; for as soon as intention arises, one does the action, be it by body, speech or mind.; For details, see: paticca-samuppāda 10, kamma.

Cetasika: 'mental things, mental properties', are those mental properties which are bound up with the simultaneously arising consciousness citta = viññāna and conditioned by its presence. Whereas in the Suttas all phenomena of existence are summed up under the aspect of 5 groups: materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions, consciousness see: khandha the Abhidhamma as a rule treats them under the more philosophical 3 aspects: consciousness, mental properties and materiality citta, cetasika, rūpa Thus, of these 3 aspects, the mental properties cetasika comprise feeling, perception and the 50 mental constructions, altogether 52 mental properties. Of these, 25 are lofty qualities either kammically advantageous or neutral, 14 kammically disadvantageous, while 13 are as such kammically neutral, their kammical quality depending on whether they are associated with advantageous, disadvantageous or neutral consciousness. For details see: Tab. II, III. Cf. prec. App.

Cetaso vinibandha: 'mental bondages', are 5 things which hinder the mind from making right exertion, namely: lust for sense-objects, for the body, for visible things, for eating and sleeping, and leading the monk's life for the sake of divine rebirth. For details, see: A.V, 205; X, 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. foll.

Cetokhila: 'mental obduracies', are 5 things which stiffen and hinder the mind from making right exertion, namely: doubt about the Master, about the Doctrine, about the Noble Brotherhood, about the training, and anger against one's fellow-Bhikkhus. For details A.V, 206, X 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. prec.

Ceto-pariya-ñāna: 'penetrating knowledge of the mind of others', is one of the 6 higher powers abhiññā 3.

Ceto-vimutti: 'deliverance of mind'. In the highest sense it signifies the fruition of Arahatship see: ariya-puggala and in particular, the concentration associated with it. It is often linked with the 'deliverance through understanding' paññā-vimutti,, e.g. in the ten powers of a Perfect One see: dasa-bala See vimokkha I.

It is also called 'unshakable deliverance of mind' akuppa further 'Infinite of m'. appamāna d. of m. from the conditions of existence, or signless of m.' animittā d. of m. from the appendages' ākincañña c.since that state of mind is free from the 3 bonds, conditions and appendants, i.e. from greed, hatred and ignorance; and since it is void thereof, it is called the 'void deliverance of mind' suññatā-c.

In a more restricted sense, 'Infinite deliverance of mind' is a name for the 4 Infinite states, i.e. loving-kindness, Pity, altruistic joy and equanimity see: brahma-vihāra; d. of m. from the appendages stands for the sphere of nothingness ākiñcaññāyatana see: jhāna 7; 'd. of mind from the conditions of existence', for of mind due to non-attention to all conditions of existence; 'void of m' for of m. due to contemplating voidness of self. For further details, see: M. 43.

Chal-abhiññā: the 6 'higher powers'; see: abhiññā

Chal-abhiñño: an Arahat who is a 'possessor of the 6 higher powers' see: abhiññā.

Chanda: intention, desire, will.

1. As an ethically neutral psychological term, in the sense of 'intention', it is one of those general mental properties cetasika Tab. II taught in the Abhidhamma, the moral quality of which is determined by the character of the intention cetanā associated therewith. The Com. explains it as 'a wish to do' kattu-kamyatā-chanda If intensified, it acts also as a 'predominance condition' see: paccaya 3.

2. As an evil quality it has the meaning of 'desire', and is frequently coupled with terms for 'sensuality', 'greed', etc., for instance:kāma-cchanda, sense-desire', one of the 5 hindrances see: nīvarana chanda-rāga 'lustful desire' see: kāma It is one of the 4 wrong paths see: agati.

3. As a good quality it is a righteous will or alertness dhamma-chanda and occurs, e.g. in the formula of the 4 right efforts see: padhāna The Bhikkhu rouses his will chandam janeti...; If intensified, it is one of the 4 roads to power see: iddhipāda

Change: contemplation of: one of the 18 chief kinds of insight vipassanā.

Chaos: cf. kappa

Character: On the 6 kinds of human character, see: carita.

Characteristics: of existence, the. 3: ti-lakkhana

Chaste life: brahma-cariya

Chief-elements: the 4: mahā-bhūta-dhātu

Cintā-maya-paññā: 'Wisdom or knowledge based on thinking', see: paññā

Citta: 'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is a synonym of mano and viññāna see: khandha and Tab. 1. Dhs divides all phenomena into consciousness citta mental properties cetasika and materiality rūpa.

In adhicitta 'higher mentality', it signifies the concentrated, quietened mind, and is one of the 3 trainings see: sikkhā The concentration or intensification of consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power see: iddhipāda.

Citta-ja citta-samutthāna-rūpa: 'mind-produced materiality'; see: samutthāna

Citta-kammaññatā: °lahutā, °mudutā, °paguññatā, °passaddhi, °ujukatā see: Tab. II.

Citta-kkhana: 'consciousness-moment', is the time occupied by one single stage in the perceptual process or cognitive series cittavīthi see: viññāna-kicca This moment again is subdivided into the genetic uppāda static thiti and dissolving bhanga moment. One such moment is said in the commentaries to be of inconceivably short duration and to last not longer than the billionth part of the time occupied by a flash of lightning. However that may be, we ourselves know from experience that it is possible within one single second to dream of innumerable things and events. In A. I, 10 it is said:;Nothing, o Bhikkhus, do I know that changes so rapidly as consciousness. Scarcely anything may be found that could be compared with this so rapidly changing consciousness.; App.khana .

Cittānupassanā: 'contemplation of consciousness', is one of the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness satipatthāna

Citta-samutthāna-rūpa: 'mind-produced materiality'; see: samutthāna.

Citta-sankhāra: see: sankhāra

Citta-santāna: 'consciousness-continuity'; see: santāna

Cittass'ekaggatā: 'one-pointedness of mind', is a synonym of concentration, or samādhi

Citta-vipallāsa: 'perversion of mind'; see: vipallāsa

Citta-visuddhi: 'purification of mind', is the 2nd of the 7 stages of purification visuddhi II,..

Citta-vīthi: 'process of consciousness'; see: viññāna-kicca

Citt'ekaggatā: = cittass'ekaggatā

Clarity of consciousness: sampajañña

Clinging: the 4 kinds of: upādāna

Cognitive series: see: viññāna-kicca

Companionship: Influence of good and bad° = samseva.

Pity: karunā see: brahma-vihāra.

Comprehension: clear c.: see: sampajañña c. in insight, see: sammasana As an alternative tr. for full understanding, see: pariññā

Co-nascence: sahajāta-paccaya is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Conceit: māna, further see: samyojana

Concentration: samādhi- right°, see: sacca IV. 8, magga 8. - wrong°, see: micchā-magga 8.

Conception: 1. thought-c°: cf. vitakka-vicāra.

Conception: 2. in the mother's womb: okkanti

Conditions: the 24: paccaya

Conditions of existence: deliverance from the: see ceto-vimutti vimokkha

Confidence: see: saddhā.

Consciousness: viññāna see: khandha citta mano q v - Moment of °: citta-kkhana Contemplation of °: cittānupassanā: satipatthāna - Materiality produced by °: citta-ja-rūpa see: samutthāna- Abodes or supports of °: cf. viññānatthiti Functions of °: viññāna-kicca.

Contemplation: see: anupassanā.

Contentedness: with whatever robe, etc. belongs to the noble usages: ariya-vamsa.

Contentment: appicchatā is one of the ascetic virtues. Cf. A. X, 181-90.

Contiguity: samanantara-paccaya is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Continuity: of body, subconsciousness, consciousness or groups of existence: santāna.

Control: effort of: see: padhāna

Conventional: expression or truth: see: desanā

Materiality: produced through consciousness, kamma, etc.; see: samutthāna- Sensitive c.: pasāda-rūpa

Materiality and mind: see: nāma-rūpa

Materiality-group: khandha rūpa-khandha see: khandha

Materiality-perceptions: rūpa-saññā see: jhāna

Corruptions: see: upakkilesa

Cosmogony: cf. kappa

Counteractive kamma: upapīlaka-kamma see: kamma.

Counter-image: during concentration: see: nimitta kasina samādhi

Course of action: advantageous or disadvantageous: kamma-patha

Covetousness: abhijjhā, further see: kamma-patha 1.

Cowardice: see: agati

Craving: Tanhā, rāga, further see: mūla

Created: the: sankhata

Cuti-citta: 'death-consciousness', lit. 'departing consciousness', is one of the 14 functions of consciousness viññāna-kicca.

Cutūpapāta-ñāna: the 'knowledge of the vanishing and reappearing' of beings is identical with the divine eye; see: abhiññā.

Cycle of existence: see: samsarā vatta


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