B | C | D |
E | F |
G | H |
I | J |
K | L |
M | N |
O | P |
Q | R |
S | T |
U | V |
W | Y
Dāna: 'foodgiving', generosity, offering.;He who
gives food, bestows a fourfold blessing: he helps to long life, good appearance,
happiness and strength. Therefore long life, good appearance, happiness and
strength will be his share, whether amongst divine beings or amongst men;
A. IV, 57.
;Five blessings accrue to the giver of food: the affection
of many, noble association, good reputation, self-confidence, and divine rebirth;
see A. V, 34. Seven further blessings are
given in A. VII, 54.
generosity, especially the offering of robes, food,
etc., to the Bhikkhus, is highly praised in all Buddhist countries of Southern
Asia as a fundamental virtue and as a means to suppress man's inborn greed
and egoism. But, as in any other good or bad action, so also in offering gifts,
it is the noble intention and intention that really counts as the action, not
the mere outward deed.
Foodgiving or generosity
dāna constitutes the first. kind of meritorious activity, the two
others being morality sīla and mental
development bhāvanā see:
cāga forms one of the 10 recollections
anussati and foodgiving one of the
10 perfections see: pāramī
Dasabala: 'the ten powers of a Perfect One; or,
he who Possesses the 10 P.', i.e. the Buddha. About him it is said e.g.,
A. X, 21:
There, o Bhikkhus, the Perfect One understands according
to reality the possible as possible, and the impossible as impossible... the
result of past, present and future actions... the
path leading to the welfare of all... the world
with its many different elements... the different inclinations in beings...
the lower and higher abilities in beings... the defilement, purity and rising
with regard to the absorptions, deliverances, concentration and attainments...
remembering many former rebirths... perceiving with the divine eye how beings
vanish and reappear again according to their actions kamma... gaining, through
ceasing of all taints, possession of 'deliverance of mind' and 'deliverance
through understanding'. ;
Dasa-pāramī: see: pāramī
- Contemplation of °: maranānussati
- As divine messenger: deva-dūta
cuti-citta is one of the 14 functions
of consciousness viññāna-kicca.
Death-proximate kamma: maranāsaññā-kamma
Deciding function: of consciousness:
Decline: in morality, understanding, etc.: see:
to °, parihāna-dhamma
upakkilesa-10 d. of insight:
visuddhi VI. - Round of d.,
see: vatta 1.
vimokkha- The 8 kinds of d.
or liberation, see: vimokkha
D. of mind, d. through voidness,
Infinite d. etc., see: ceto-vimutti
- Desire for d., visuddhi VI,
6. - D. through understanding;
paññā-vimutti- 3 doors of
d. or gateways of liberation see: visuddhi
Deluded or Confused consciousness: see:
Tab. I. 32, 33.
Deluded or Confused-natured:
Deluded or Confusion: see: moha
Departed: the spirits of the:
Dependent origination: paticca
upādā-rūpa, further see:
khandha I. B..
Desanā: 'exposition' of the doctrine, may be either
an exposition true in the highest sense
paramattha-desanā or it may
not be true in the highest, but only in the conventional sense vohāra-desanā
Desire for deliverance: see:
visuddhi VI, 6.
Desireless deliverance: see:
Desirelessness: contemplation on: see:
Destiny: evil views with fixed d.: niyata-micchā-ditthi.
Men with fixed d.: niyata-puggala
Destruction: overcoming, or liberation from,
evil things through their d.;
samuccheda-pahāna or samuccheda-vimutti
upaghātaka-kamma see: kamma.
Determining: votthapana see:
Determining the reality: see:
Deva: lit: the Radiant Ones; related to Lat. deus:
divine beings, deities, celestials, are beings who live in happy worlds, and
who, as a rule, are invisible to the human eye. They are subject, however,
just like all human and other beings, to ever-repeated rebirth, old age and
death, and thus are not freed from the cycle of existence and from
misery. There are many classes of divine beings.
I. The 6 classes of divine beings of the sense-sphere
loka are cātumahārājika-deva, Tāvatimsa, Yāma, Tusita see: Bodhisatta,
Nimmāna-rati, Paranimmita-vasavatti Cf.
II. The divine beings of the fine-material sphere
rūpāvacara or rūpaloka are:
1. brahma-pārisajja brahma-purohita
brahma-kāyika-deva Amongst these 3 classes will be reborn those
with a weak, medium or full experience of the 1st absorption
ābhassara Here will be reborn those
with experience of the 2nd absorption.
3. paritta-subha appamāna-subha,
subha-kinna or kinha Here will be reborn those with experience
of the 3rd absorption.
suddhāvāsa, further see:
anāgāmi Amongst the first 2 classes will
be reborn those with experience of the 4th absorption, but amongst the 3rd
class only anāgāmi s.
III. The 4 grades of divine beings of the immaterial
sphere arūpāvacara or arūpa-loka
are: the divine beings of the sphere of unbounded space ākāsānañcāyatanūpaga-devā
of unbounded consciousness viññānañcāyatanūpaga-deva,
of nothingness ākiñcaññāyatanūpaga devā of neither-perception-nor-non-perception nevasaññā-nāsaññāyatanūpaga-devā Here will
be reborn those with experience of the 4 immaterial spheres arūpāyatana
see: jhāna 5-8.
See Gods and the Universe by Francis Story
Deva-dūta: 'divine messengers', is a symbolic
name for old age, disease and death, since these three things remind man of
his future and rouse him to earnest striving. In
A. III, 35, it is said:
;Did you, o man, never see in the world a man or a
woman eighty, ninety or a hundred years old, frail, crooked as a gable-roof,
bent down, resting on crutches, with tottering steps, infirm, youth long since
fled, with broken teeth, grey and scanty hair, or baldheaded, wrinkled, with
blotched limbs? And did it never occur to you that you also are subject to
old age, that you also cannot escape it?
;Did you never see in the world a man or a woman, who
being sick, afflicted and grievously ill, and wallowing in their own filth,
was lifted up by some people, and put down by others? And did it never occur
to you that you also are subject to disease, that you also cannot escape it?
;Did you never see in the world the corpse of a man
or a woman, one or two or three days after death, swollen up, blue-black in
colour, and full of corruption? And did it never occur to you that you also
are subject to death, that you also cannot escape it?; - See
Devatānussati: 'recollection of the divine
beings'; see: anussati
bhāvanā - Effort to develop, see: padhāna.
- Wisdom based on d. see: paññā
- Gradual d. of the 8-fold path in
the 'progress of the disciple'.
Deviation: from morality and understanding:
Dhamma: lit. the 'bearer', constitution or nature
of a thing, norm, law jus doctrine; justice, righteousness; quality;
thing, object of mind see: āyatana
phenomenon'. In all these meanings the word
dhamma is to be met with in the texts. The
D. instances 4 applications of this term
guna quality, virtue, desanā
instruction, pariyatti text, nijjīvatā
soullessness, e.g.;all dhammā phenomena, are impersonal,; etc.. The
hetu condition instead of
desanā Thus, the analytical knowledge of
the law see: patisambhidā is explained
in Vis.M XIV. and in
Vibh. as hetumhi-ñāna
knowledge of the conditions.
The Dhamma, as the liberating law discovered and proclaimed
by the Buddha, is summed up in the 4 Noble Truths see:
sacca It forms one of the 3 Gems
ti-ratana and one of the 10 recollections
Dhamma, as object of mind
āyatana may be anything past, present
or future, material or mental, conditioned or not cf.
sankhāra 4, real or imaginary.
Dhamma-cakka: The 'Wheel realm of the Law',
is a name for the doctrine 'set rolling' established by the Buddha, i.e. the
4 Noble Truths sacca.
;The Perfect One, o Bhikkhus, the Noble One, fully Enlightened
One, in the Deer Park at Isipatana near Benares, has set rolling established
the unsurpassed Wheel realm of the Law; M.
141. Cf. cakka
Dhamma-desanā: 'exposition of the Doctrine
law'; see: desanā
Dhamma-dhātu: mental-object-element see:
Dhammānupassanā: 'contemplation of the
mental-objects' is the last of the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness
Dhammānusārī: the 'dhamma-devotee', is one
of the 7 Noble Disciples ariya-puggala.
Dhammānussati: 'recollection of the Law',
is one of the 10 recollections anussati.
Dhamma-patisambhidā: the 'analytical
knowledge of the law, is one of the 4 kinds of analytical knowledge
Dhamma-tthiti-ñāna: 'knowledge of the
fixity of law, is a name for that 'insight which is leading up' to the entrance
into one of the 4 supra-mundane paths vutthāna-gāminī-vipassanā.
In the Susima Sutta see: XII, 70 this ascending
insight is called the 'knowledge of the fixity of the law', namely:;At first,
Susima, there exists the knowledge of the fixity of the law, and later the
knowledge of Nibbāna.; See Vis.M XXI.
'investigation of the law as link to Awakening', is one of the 7 factors of
Dhammāyatana: 'mental-object as base'
Dhana: 'treasures', a term for the following 7 qualities:
faith, morality, moral shame, Fear of Wrongdoing, learning, generosity and
understanding. Cf. A. VII, 5, 6.
See 'Treasures of the Noble', by Soma Thera BODHI
LEAVES B. 27, BPS.
Dhātu: 'elements', are the ultimate constituents
of a whole.
I The 4 physical elements
mahā-bhūta popularly called earth,
water, fire and wind, are to be understood as the primary qualities of matter.
They are named in Pāli: pathavī-dhātu, āpo-dhātu,
tejo-dhātu, and vāyo-dhātu In Vis.M
XI, 2 the four elements are defined thus:,Whatever is characterized by hardness
thaddha-lakkkhana is the earth or solid-element; by cohesion
ābandhana or fluidity, the water-element; by heating paripācana
the fire or heat-element; by strengthening or supporting vitthambhana
the wind or motion-element. All four are present in every material object,
though in varying degrees of strength. If, for instance, the earth element
predominates, the material object is called 'solid', etc. - For the analysis
of the 4 elements, see: dhātu-vavatthāna
II The 18 physical and mental elements that constitute
the conditions or foundations of the process of perception, are:
|1. visual organ eye
|2. auditory organ ear
|3. olfactory organ nose
|4. gustatory organ tongue
|5. tactile organ body
|6. visible object
|7. sound or audible object
|8. odour or olfactive object
|9. gustative object
1-10 are physical; 11-16 and 18 are mental; 17 may
be either physical or mental. - 16 performs the function of directing
āvajjana towards the object at the
inception of a process of sense-consciousness; it further performs the function
of receiving sampaticchana the sense-object. 18 performs, e.g., the
function of investigation santīrana determining votthapana and
registering tadārammana - for its other functions, see: Table I. For
the 14 functions of consciousness, see:
Cf. M. 115;
see: XIV and especially
Guide p. 28f,
Vis.M XV, 17ff.
Of the many further groupings of elements enumerated
in M. 115, the best known is that of the
3 world-elements: the sense-world kāma-dhātu the fine-material world
the immaterial world arūpa-dhātu
further the sixfold group: the solid, liquid, heat, motion, space, consciousness
pathavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo, ākāsa, viññāna
see: above I, described in M. 140; see
also M. 112.
Dhātu-vavatthāna: 'analysis or determining
of the 4 elements', is described in Vis.M
XI, 2, as the last of the 40 mental exercises see:
bhāvanā In a condensed form this exercise
is handed down in D. 22 and
M. 10 see:
satipatthāna but in detail explained
in M. 28, 62, 140. The simile of the butcher
in M. 10,Just, o Bhikkhus, as a skilled
butcher or butcher's apprentice, after having slaughtered a cow and divided
it into separate portions, should sit down at the junction of four highroads;
just so does the disciple contemplate this body with regard to the elements;
is thus explained in Vis.M XI.:;To
the butcher, who rears the cow, brings it to the slaughter-house, ties it,
puts it there, slaughters it, or looks at the slaughtered and dead cow, the
idea 'cow' does not disappear as long as he has not yet cut the body open
and taken it to pieces. As soon, however, as he sits down, after having cut
it open and taken it to pieces, the idea 'cow' disappears to him, and the
idea 'meat' arises. And he does not think: 'A cow do I sell, or 'A cow do
they buy.' Just so, when the Bhikkhu formerly was still an ignorant worldling,
layman or a homeless one, the ideas 'living being' or 'man' or 'individual'
had not yet disappeared as long as he had not taken this body, whatever position
or direction it had, to pieces and analysed it piece by piece. As soon, however,
as he analysed this body into its elements, the idea 'living being' disappeared
to him, and his mind became established in the contemplation of the elements.;
Dhutānga: lit. means of 'shaking
off the defilements'; method of purification, ascetic or austere praxis. These are strict observances
recommended by the Buddha to Bhikkhus as a help to cultivate contentedness,
withdrawal, energy and the like. One or more of them may be observed for
a shorter or longer period of time.
;The Bhikkhu training himself in morality should take
upon himself the means of purification, in order to gain those virtues through
which the purity of morality will become accomplished, to wit: fewness of
needs, contentedness, austerity, detachment, energy, moderation, etc.;
Vis.M II describes
13 dhutāngas consisting in the vows of
1. Wearing patched-up robes:
2. Wearing only three robes:tecīvarik'anga,
3. Going for alms-food: pindapātik'anga,
4. Not omitting any house whilst going for food:sapadānikanga,
5. Eating at one sitting:ekāsanik'anga,
6. Eating only from the food-bowl:pattapindik'anga,
7. Refusing all further food:
8. Living in the forest: āraññik'anga,
9. Living under a tree:rukkha-mūlik'anga,
10. Living in the open air:abbhokāsik'anga,
11. Living in a cemetery:susānik'anga,
12. Being satisfied with whatever dwelling: yathā-santhatik'anga,
13. Sleeping in the sitting position and never lying down: nesajjik'anga
These 13 exercises are all, without exception, mentioned
in the old sutta texts e.g. M. 5, 113;
A.V., 181-90, but never together in one
and the same place.
;Without doubt, o Bhikkhus, it is a great advantage
to live in the forest as a hermit, to collect one's food, to make one's robes
from picked-up rags, to be satisfied with three robes;
The vow, e.g. of No. 1, is taken in the words:;I reject
robes offered to me by householders,; or;I take upon myself the vow of wearing
only robes made from picked-up rags.; Some of the exercises may also be observed
by the lay-adherent.
Here it may be mentioned that each newly ordained
monk, immediately after his being admitted to the Order, is advised to be
satisfied with whatever robes, alms-food, dwelling and medicine he gets:;The
life of the Bhikkhus depends on the collected food as food... on the root
of a tree as dwelling... on robes made from patched-up rags... on stale cow's
urine as medicine. May you train yourself therein all your life.;
Since the moral quality of any action depends entirely
upon the accompanying intention and intention, this is also the case with
these ascetic practices, as is expressly stated in
Vis.M Thus the mere external performance
is not the real exercise, as it is said Pug.
275-84:;Some one might be going for food; etc. out of stupidity and foolishness
- or with evil intention and filled with desires - or out of insanity and
mental derangement - or because such practice had been praised by the Noble
Ones. ; These exercises are, however properly observed;if they are taken up
only for the sake of frugality, of contentedness, of purity, etc.;App.
Dibba-cakkhu: the 'divine eye', is one
of the 6 higher powers abhiññā, and
one of the three kinds of knowledge tevijjā,.
On dhutānga practice in modern Thailand, see With
Robes and Bowl, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo WHEEL
Dibba-loka: divine world; see:
Dibba-sota: the 'divine ear', is one of the
6 higher powers abhiññā.
vigata-paccaya is one of the
24 conditions paccaya. disciplinary
code: see: pātimokkha
Disease: one of the 'divine messengers'
Disinterestedness: regarding the whole
world: see: sabbaloke anabhirati-saññā
vippayutta-paccaya is one
of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Dissolution: contemplation of:
khayānupassanā is one of the
18 chief kinds of insight vipassanā.
kamma bearing fruit in this present life; see: kamma.
Ditthi: lit. 'sight'; Verbal root: dis to see: view,
belief, speculative opinion, insight. If not qualified by sammā 'right',
it mostly refers to wrong and evil view or opinion, and only in a few instances
to right view, understanding or insight e.g.
of insight; ditthi-sampanna
possessed of insight.
Wrong or evil views
ditthi or micchā-ditthi
are declared as utterly rejectable for being a source of wrong and evil aspirations
and conduct, and liable at times to lead man to the deepest abysses of depravity,
as it is said in A. I, 22:
;No other thing than evil views do I know, o Bhikkhus,
whereby to such an extent the disadvantageous things not yet arisen arise,
and the disadvantageous things already arisen are brought to growth and fullness.
No other thing than evil views do I know, whereby to such an extent the advantageous
things not yet arisen are hindered in their arising, and the advantageous
things already arisen disappear. No other thing than evil views do I know,
whereby to such an extent human beings at the dissolution of the body, at
death, are passing to a way of suffering, into a world of woe, into hell.;
Further in A. I, 23:;Whatever a man filled
with evil views performs or undertakes, or whatever he possesses of will,
aspiration, longing and latent tendencies, all these things lead him to an
undesirable, unpleasant and painful state, to woe and suffering.;
From the Abhidhamma Dhs it may be inferred that evil
views, whenever they arise, are associated with greed see:
Tab. I. 22, 23, 26, 27.
Numerous speculative opinions and theories, which
at all times have influenced and still are influencing mankind, are quoted
in the sutta-texts. Amongst them, however, the wrong view which everywhere,
and at all times, has most misled and confused mankind is the personality-belief,
the ego-illusion. This personality-belief
sakkāya-ditthi or ego-illusion
atta-ditthi is of 2 kinds: eternity-belief
sassata-ditthi is the belief
in the existence of a persisting ego-entity, soul or personality, existing
independently of those physical and mental processes that constitute life
and continuing even after death.
uccheda-ditthi on the other
hand, is the belief in the existence of an ego-entity or personality as being
more or less identical with those physical and mental processes, and which
therefore, at the dissolution at death, will come to be annihilated. - For
the 20 kinds of personality-belief, see
Now, the Buddha neither teaches a personality which
will continue after death, nor does he teach a personality which will be annihilated
at death, but he shows us that 'personality', 'ego', 'individual', 'man',
etc., are nothing but mere conventional designations vohāra-vacana
and that in the ultimate sense see: paramattha-sacca there is only this self-consuming
process of physical and mental phenomena which continually arise and again
disappear immediately. - For further details, see: anattā, khandha, paticcasamuppāda
;The Perfect One is free from any theory ditthigata,
for the Perfect One has seen what materiality is, and how it arises and passes
away. He has seen what feeling... perception... mental constructions... consciousness
are, and how they arise and pass away. Therefore I say that the Perfect One
has won complete deliverance through the ceasing, fading away, disappearance,
rejection and casting out of all imaginings and conjectures, of all inclination
to the 'vain-glory of 'I' and 'mine.; M.
The rejection of speculative views and theories is
a prominent feature in a chapter of the Sutta-Nipāta, the Atthaka-Vagga.
The so-called 'evil views with fixed destiny'
constituting the last of the 10 disadvantageous courses of action kamma-patha,
are the following three: 1: The fatalistic 'view of the uncausedness' of existence
ahetuka-ditthi, 2: The view of the moral inefficacy of action'
3: Nihilism natthi-kaditthi
1: Was taught by
Makkhali-Gosāla, a contemporary of
the Buddha who denied every cause for the corruptness and purity of beings,
and asserted that everything is minutely predestined by fate.
2: Was taught by
Pūrana-Kassapa, another contemporary
of the Buddha who denied every kammical effect of good and bad actions: To
him who kills, steals, robs, etc., nothing bad will happen. For generosity,
self-restraint and truthfulness, etc. no reward is to be expected...
3: Was taught by Ajita-Kesakambali, a third contemporary
of the Buddha who asserted that any belief in good action and its reward
is a mere confusion, that after death no further life would follow, that man
at death would become dissolved into the elements, etc.
For further details about these 3 views, see:
M. 60; commentarial exposition in
98/99, P. 23.
Frequently mentioned are also the 10 antinomies
:Finite is the world' or 'infinite is the world'... 'body and soul are identical'
or 'body and soul are different' e.g. M.
In the Brahmājala Sutta.D.1,
62 false views are classified and described, comprising all conceivable wrong
views and speculations about man and world.
Com. by Bhikkhu Bodhi BPS.
See The All-Embracing Net of Views Brahmājala Sutta,
D. 15, 23, 24, 28;
M. 11, 12, 25, 60, 63, 72, 76, 101,
102, 110; A. II, 16; X, 93;
see: XXI, XXIV;
Pts.M. Ditthikathā,. etc.
Wrong views ditthi
are one of the latent tendencies see: anusaya
fermentations see: āsava clingings see:
upādāna one of the three modes of
perversions see: vipallāsa Unadvantageous
consciousness akusala citta rooted in greed, may be either with or
without wrong views ditthigata-sampayutta or vippayutta
see: Dhs.; Tab I.
On right view
M. 9 Trans. with
Com. in 'R.
Ditthi-nissita-sīla: 'morality based
on wrong views'; see: nissaya
Ditthi-ppatta: the 'vision attainer', is
one of the 7 Noble Persons ariya-puggala.
Ditthi-vipallāsa: 'perversion of views';
Ditthi-visuddhi: 'purification of view'
is the 3rd of the 7 stages of purification
Ditth'upādāna: 'clinging to views', is
one of the 4 kinds of clinging upādāna.
Divine abode: see:
Divine ear and eye: see:
Divine messengers: the 3:
Doctrine of the Buddha: see:
Dogmatic articles: the 3:
Domanassa: lit. 'sad-mindedness', grief, i.e.
mentally painful feeling cetasika-vedanā
is one of the 5 feelings vedanā and
one of the 22 abilities indriya. According
to the Abhidhamma, grief is always associated with antipathy and grudge, and
therefore kammically disadvantageous akusala
Cf. Tab. I. 30, 31.
Domanassupavicāra: 'indulging in grief';
Doors of deliverance: the 3:
visuddhi VI, 8.
Dosa: 'hatred', anger, is one of the 3 disadvantageous,
roots mūla. - d.
citta hate consciousness; see:
Tab. I 30, 31.
Dosa-carita: 'angry-or hate-natured'; see:
Dread: moral: ottappa
Drinking: On the evil effects of drinking intoxicants,
see: surāmeraya etc.
Duccarita: 'evil conduct', is threefold: in
deeds, words and thoughts. See kamma-patha
Duggati: 'woeful course' of existence; see:
Dukkha: 1 'pain', painful feeling, which may be
bodily and mental see: vedanā
2 'Suffering', 'ill'. As the first of the Four Noble
Truths see: sacca and the second of
the three characteristics of existence see:
ti-lakkhana the term
dukkha is not limited to painful experience
as under 1, but refers to the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity
of all conditioned phenomena which, on account of their
impermanence, are all liable to suffering,
and this includes also pleasurable experience. Hence 'unsatisfactoriness'
or 'liability to suffering' would be more adequate renderings, if not for
stylistic reasons. Hence the first truth does not deny the existence of pleasurable
experience, as is sometimes wrongly assumed. This is illustrated by the following
;Seeking satisfaction in the world, Bhikkhus, I had
pursued my way. That satisfaction in the world I found. In so far as satisfaction
existed in the world, I have well perceived it by understanding. Seeking for
misery in the world, Bhikkhus, I had pursued
my way. That misery in the world I found.
In so far as misery existed in the world,
I have well perceived it by understanding. Seeking for the escape from the world,
Bhikkhus, I had pursued my way. That escape from the world I found. In so
far as an escape from the world existed, I have well perceived it by understanding;
A. 111, 101.
;If there were no satisfaction to be found in the
world, beings would not be attached to the world. If there were no
misery to be found in the world, beings would
not be repelled by the world. If there were no escape from the world,
beings could not escape therefrom; A. 111,
For texts on the Truth of Suffering, see W. of B. and 'path'.
See The Three Basic Facts of Existence, II. Suffering
Dukkhatā: abstr. noun fr.
dukkha 'the state of suffering', painfulness,
unpleasantness, the unsatisfactoriness of existence.,There are three kinds
of suffering: 1 suffering as pain dukkha-dukkhatā
2 the suffering inherent in the constructions
3 the suffering in change viparināma-dukkhatā
see: XLV, 165;
1 is the bodily or mental feeling of pain as actual]y
felt. 2 refers to the oppressive nature of all constructions of existence
i.e. all conditioned phenomena, due to their continual arising and passing
away; this includes also experiences associated with neutral feeling. 3 refers
to bodily and mental pleasant feelings,;because they are the cause for the
arising of pain when they change;
Vis.M XIV, 34f.
Dukkha-patipadā: 'painful progress';
Dwellings: Suitable d. for Bhikkhus;
see: senāsana Satisfied with whatever
d.; see: dhutānga
A | B |
C | D |
E | F |
G | H |
I | J |
K | L |
M | N |
O | P |
Q | R |
S | T |
U | V |
W | Y