BUDDHIST DICTIONARY

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-M-

Macchariya: 'stinginess', avarice.;There are 5 kinds of stinginess, o Bhikkhus; regarding the dwelling place, regarding families, regarding gain, regarding recognition, regarding mental things' A. IX, 49; Pug. 56.

Mada: 'infatuation'.;Infatuation is of 3 kinds: youth-infatuation, health-infatuation, life-infatuation; D. 33.;Infatuated by youth-infatuation, by health-infatuation and by life-infatuation, the ignorant worldling pursues an evil course in bodily actions, speech and thought, and thereby, at the dissolution of the body, after death, passes to a lower world, to a woeful course of existence, to a state of suffering and hell; A. III, 39.

Magga: 'Path'. 1. For the 4 supra-mundane paths lokuttara-magga see: ariya-puggala- 2. The 8-fold path atthangika-magga is the path leading to the ceasing of suffering, i.e. the last of the 4 Noble Truths sacca, namely:

Wisdom pa˝˝ā III.

1. Right view sammā-ditthi
2. Right motivation sammā-sankappa

Morality sīla I.

3. Right speech sammā-vācā
4. Right bodily action sammā-kammanta
5. Right livelihood sammā-ājīva

Concentration samādhi II.

6. Right effort sammā-vāyāma
7. Right awareness or mindfulness sammā-sati
8. Right concentration sammā-samādhi

1. Right view or right understanding sammā-ditthi is the understanding of the 4 Noble Truths about the universality of suffering unsatisfactoriness, of its origin, its cessation, and the path leading to that cessation. - See the Discourse on 'Right Understanding' M. 9, tr. and Com. in 'R. Und.'.

2. Right motivation sammā-sankappa thoughts free from sense-desire, from ill-will, and cruelty.

3. Right speech sammā-vācā abstaining from lying, tale-bearing, harsh language, and foolish babble.

4. Right bodily action sammā-kammanta abstaining from killing, stealing, and unlawful sexual intercourse.

5. Right livelihood sammā-ājīva abstaining from a livelihood that brings harm to other beings, such as trading in arms, in living beings, intoxicating drinks, poison; slaughtering, fishing, soldiering, deceit, treachery soothsaying, trickery, usury, etc.

6. Right effort sammā-vāyāma the effort of avoiding or overcoming evil and disadvantageous things, and of developing and maintaining advantageous things see: padhāna.

7. Right awareness or mindfulness sammā-sati awareness or mindfulness and awareness in contemplating body, feelings, mind, and mental-objects see: sati satipatthāna

8. Right concentration sammā-samādhi concentration of mind associated with advantageous kusala consciousness, which eventually may reach the absorptions jhāna,. Cf. samādhi

There are to be distinguished 2 kinds of concentration, mundane lokiya and supra-mundane lokuttara concentration. The latter is associated with those states of consciousness known as the 4 supra-mundane paths and fruitions see: ariya-puggala As it is said in M. 117:

'I tell you, o Bhikkhus, there are 2 kinds of right view: the understanding that it is good to give food and offerings, that both good and evil actions will bear fruit and will be followed by results. This, o Bhikkhus, is a view which, though still subject to the fermentations, is meritorious, yields worldly fruits, and brings good results. But whatever there is of understanding, of penetration, of right view conjoined with the path - the Noble path being pursued, this is called the supra-mundane right view lokuttara-sammā-ditthi which is not of the world, but which is supra-mundane and conjoined with the path.'

In a similar way the remaining links of the path are to be understood.

As many of those who have written about the 8-fold path have misunderstood its true nature, it is therefore appropriate to add here a few elucidating remarks about it, as this path is fundamental for the understanding and practice of the Buddha's.teaching.

First of all, the figurative expression 'path' should not be interpreted to mean that one has to advance step by step in the sequence of the enumeration until, after successively passing through all the eight stages, one finally may reach one's destination, Nibbāna. If this really were the case, one should have realized, first of all, right view and penetration of the truth, even before one could hope to proceed to the next steps, right thought and right speech; and each preceding stage would be the indispensable foundation and condition for each succeeding stage. In reality, however, the links 3-5 constituting moral training sīla are the first 3 links to be cultivated, then the links 6-8 constituting mental training samādhi and at last right view, etc. constituting understanding pa˝˝ā.

It is, however, true that a really unshakable and safe foundation to the path is provided only by right view which, starting from the tiniest germ of faith and knowledge, gradually, step by step, develops into penetrating insight vipassanā and thus forms the immediate condition for the entrance into the 4 supra-mundane paths and fruits of Nobility, and for the realization of Nibbāna. Only with regard to this highest form of supra-mundane insight, may we indeed say that all the remaining links of the path are nothing but the outcome and the accompaniments of right view.

Regarding the mundane lokiya 8-fold path, however, its links may arise without the first link, right view.

Here it must also be emphasized that the links of the path not only do not arise one after the other, as already indicated, but also that they, at least in part, arise simultaneously as inseparably associated mental properties in one and the same state of consciousness. Thus, for instance, under all circumstances at least 4 links are inseparably bound up with any kammically advantageous consciousness, namely 2, 6, 7 and 8, i.e. right thought, right effort, right awareness or mindfulness and right concentration M. 117, so that as soon as any one of these links arises, the three others also do so. On the other hand, right view is not necessarily present in every advantageous state of consciousness.

Magga is one of the 24 conditions see: paccaya 18.

Literature: The Noble 8-fold path and its Factors Explained, by Ledi Sayadaw WHEEL 245/247. - The Buddha's Ancient path, by Piyadassi Thera BPS.- The Noble 8-fold path, by Bhikkhu Bodhi WHEEL 308/311.

Maggāmagga-˝ānadassana-visuddhi: 'purification by knowledge of what is path and not-path', is one of the 7 stages of purification visuddhi.

Magga-paccaya: 'Path as a condition', is one of the 24 conditions paccaya. magical powers: s. iddhi; abhi˝˝ā 1.

Mahā-bhūta: the 4 'primary elements', is another name for the 4 elements dhātu underlying all materiality; see: dhātu

Mahā-brahmāno: the 'great gods', are a class of divine beings in the fine-material world; see: deva II.

Mahaggata: lit., 'grown great', i.e. 'developed', exalted, supernormal. As mahaggata-citta it is the state of 'developed consciousness', attained in the fine-material and immaterial absorptions see: jhāna it is mentioned in the mind-contemplation of the Satipatthāna Sutta M. 10. - As mahaggatārammana it is the 'developed mental object' of those absorptions and is mentioned in the 'object triad' of the Abhidhamma schedule and Dhs. see: Guide, p. 6.

Mahāpurisa-vitakka: the 8 'thoughts of a great man', are described in A. VIII, 30, and D. 34.

Mahā-vipassanā: the 18 'chief kinds of insight'; see: vipassanā

Maintain: effort to maintain advantageous things; see: padhāna

Majjhimā-patipadā: 'Middle path', is the Noble 8-fold path which, by avoiding the two extremes of sensual lust and self-torment, leads to enlightenment and deliverance from suffering.

To give oneself up to indulgence in sensual pleasure kāma-sukha the base, common, vulgar, unholy, unprofitable; and also to give oneself up to self-torment atta-kilamatha the painful, unholy, unprofitable, both these two extremes the Perfect One has avoided and has found the Middle path see: magga which causes one both to see and to know, and which leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. It is the Noble 8-fold path, the way that leads to the ceasing of suffering, namely: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right bodily action, right livelihood, right effort, right awareness or mindfulness, and right concentration; S. LVI, 11.

Mala: 'stains', is a name for the 3 kammically disadvantageous roots akusala-mūla, greed, hate and confusion lobha, dosa, moha.

Māna: 'conceit', pride, is one of the 10 mental chains binding to existence see: samyojana It vanishes completely only at the entrance to Arahatship, or Nobility cf. asmi-māna It is further one of the latent tendencies see: anusaya and defilements see: kilesa

The equality-conceit māna the inferiority-conceit omāna and the superiority-conceit atimāna this threefold conceit should be overcome. For, after overcoming this threefold conceit, the monk, through the full penetration of conceit, is said to have put an end suffering; A. VI, 49.

Those ascetics and brahman priests who, relying on this impermanent, miserable and transitory nature of materiality, feelings, perceptions, mental constructions and consciousness, fancy: 'Better am I', or 'Equal am I', or 'Worse am I', all these imagine thus through not understanding reality; S. XXII, 49.

In reality no ego-entity is to be found. Cf. anattā

Manasikāra: 'attention', 'mental directing', 'reflection'.

1. As a psychological term, attention belongs to the construction-group sankhāra-khandha Tab. II. and is one of the 7 mental properties cetasika that are inseparably associated with all states of consciousness see: cetanā In M. 9, it is given as one of the factors representative of mind nāma It is the mind's first 'confrontation with an object' and 'binds the associated mental properties to the object.' It is, therefore, the prominent factor in two specific classes of consciousness: i.e. 'directing āvajjana at the five sense-doors' Tab. I, 70 and at the mind-door Tab. I, 71. These two states of consciousness, breaking through the subconscious life-continuum bhavanga form the first stage in the perceptual process citta-vīthi see. vi˝˝āna-kicca See Vis.M XIV, 152.

2. In a more general sense, the term appears frequently in the Suttas as yoniso-manasikāra 'wise or reasoned, methodical attention' or 'wise reflection'. It is said, in M. 2, to counteract the fermentations āsava, it is a condition for the arising of right view see: M. 43, of Stream-entry see: sotāpattiyanga and of the factors of enlightenment see: S. XLVI, 2.49,51. - 'Unwise attention' ayoniso-manasikāra leads to the arising of the fermentations see: M. 2 and of the five hindrances see: S. XLVI, 2.51.

Manāyatana: 'mind-base', is a collective term for all the different states of consciousness; see: āyatana.

Mangala: means, in general usage, anything regarded as 'auspicious' 'lucky', or a 'good omen'. Against the contemporary superstitions notions about it, the Buddha, in the Mahā-mangala Sutta Sn., w. 258 ff., set forth 36 'blessings' that are truly auspicious, i.e. conducive to happiness, beginning with the 'avoidance of bad company' and ending with a 'serene mind'. It is one of the most popular Suttas in Buddhist countries, and a fundamental text on Buddhist lay ethics.

Tr. in Everyman's Ethics WHEEL 14. See Life's Highest Blessings, by Dr. R. L. Soni. WHEEL 254/256.

Mano: 'mind', is in the Abhidhamma used as synonym of vi˝˝āna consciousness and citta state of consciousness, mind. According to the Com. to Vis.M, it sometimes means sub-consciousness see: bhavanga-sota

Mano-dhātu: 'mind-element', is one of the 18 elements see: dhātu II. This term, unlike manāyatana does not apply to the whole of consciousness, but designates only that special element of consciousness which first, at the beginning of the process of sense-perception, performs the function of directing āvajjana a href=dic2-abbrev.htm#Tab. Tab. I, 70 to the sense-object and, then after twice having become conscious of it performs the function of reception sampaticchana Tab I- 39,.55 into mind-consciousness. See vi˝˝āna-kicca

Mano-kamma: 'mental action'; see: kamma, kamma-patha.

Manomayā iddhi: s. iddhi.

Manopadosika-deva: 'the celestial beings corruptible by temper', are a class of devas of the sense-sphere.;They spend their time in becoming annoyed with one another, and getting into a temper, and thus by being bodily and mentally exhausted, they pass from that world; D. 1; 24.

Manopavicāra: 'mental indulging'. There are mentioned 18 ways of indulging: 6 in gladness somanassūpavicāra in sorrow domanassa 6 in indifference upekkhā Perceiving with the eye a visible form... hearing with the ear a sound... being in mind conscious of an object, one indulges in the joy-producing object, the sorrow-producing object, the indifference-producing object... M. 137; A. III, 61. - In the Com. to A., upavicāra is said to be identical with vitakka-vicāra

Mano-sa˝cetanā: 'mental intention'; see: āhāra.

Manovin˝āna-dhātu: 'mind-consciousness element', one of the 18 'elements' see: dhātu II. This term is generally used as a name for that consciousness-element which performs the functions of investigation santīrana determining votthapana registering tadārammana etc. See Tab. I, 40, 41, 56, 71, 72.

Māra: lit. 'the killer', is the Buddhist 'Tempter-figure. He is often called 'Māra the Evil One' pāpimā māro or Namuci lit. 'the non-liberator', i.e. the opponent of liberation. He appears in the texts both as a real person i.e. as a deity and as personification of evil and passions, of the totality of worldly existence, and of death. Later Pāli literature often speaks of a 'fivefold Māra' pa˝ca-māra 1. M. as a deity devaputta-māra. the M. of defilements kilesa-m 3. the M. of the aggregates or clusters khandha-m. the M. of the kammic-constructions kamma-m., and 5. Māra as death maccu-m..

As a real person, M. is regarded as the deity ruling over the highest heaven of the sense-sphere kāmāvacara that of the paranimmitavasavatti-devas the 'deities wielding power over the creations of others' Com. to M. 1. According to tradition, when the Bodhisatta was seated under the Bodhi-tree, Māra tried in vain to obstruct his attainment of Enlightenment, first by frightening him through his hosts of demons, etc., and then by his 3 daughters' allurements. This episode is called 'Māra's war' māra-yuddha For 7 years M. had followed the Buddha, looking for any weakness in him; that is, 6 years before the Enlightenment and one year after it Sn. v. 446. He also tried to induce the Buddha to pass away into Parinibbāna without proclaiming the Dhamma, and also when the time for the Buddha's Parinibbāna had come, he urged him on. But the Buddha acted on his own insight in both cases. See D. 16.

For 3 M. as the aggregates or clusters, see: S. XXIII, 1, 11, 12, 23. See Padhāna Sutta Sn. v. 425ff.; Māra Samyutta S. IV.

Marana: 'death', in ordinary usage, means the disappearance of the vital ability confined to a single life-time, and therewith of the psycho-physical life-process conventionally called 'man, animal, personality, ego', etc. Strictly speaking, however, death is the continually repeated dissolution and vanishing of each momentary physical-mental combination, and thus it takes place every moment. About this momentaneity of existence, it is said in Vis.M VIII:

In the absolute sense, beings have only a very short moment to live, life lasting as long as a single moment of consciousness lasts. Just as a cart-wheel, whether rolling or whether at a standstill, at all times only rests on a single point of its periphery, even so the life of a living being lasts only for the duration of a single moment of consciousness. As soon as that moment ceases, the being also ceases. For it is said: 'The being of the past moment of consciousness has lived, but does not live now, nor will it live in future. The being of the future moment has not yet lived, nor does it live now, but it will live in the future. The being of the present moment has not lived, it does live just now, but it will not live in the future.

In another sense, the coming to an end of the psycho-physical life-process of the Arahat, or perfectly Noble One, at the moment of his passing away may be called the final and ultimate death, as up to that moment the psycho-physical life-process was still going on from life to life.

Death, in the ordinary sense, combined with old age, forms the 12th link in the formula of dependent origination paticca-samuppāda.

For death as a subject of meditation, see: maranānussati as a function of consciousness, see: vi˝˝āna-kicca

Maranāsanna-kamma: s. kamma.

Maranānussati: 'recollection of death', is one of the 10 recollections treated in detail in Vis.M VIII:

''Recollection of death, developed and frequently practised, yields great reward, great blessing, has Deathlessness as its goal and object. But how may such recollection be developed?

As soon as the day declines, or as the night vanishes and the day is breaking, the Bhikkhu thus reflects: 'Truly, there are many possibilities for me to die: I may be bitten by a serpent, or be stung by a scorpion or a centipede, and thereby I may lose my life. But this would be an obstacle for me. Or I may stumble and fall to the ground, or the food eaten by me may not agree with my health; or bile, phlegm and piercing body gases may become disturbing, or men or ghosts may attack me, and thus I may lose my life. But this would be an obstacle for me.' Then the Bhikkhu has to consider thus: 'Are there still to be found in me unsubdued evil, disadvantageous things which, if I should die today or tonight, might lead me to suffering?' Now, if he understands that this is the case, he should use his utmost resolution, energy, effort, endeavour, steadfastness, attentiveness and clear-mindedness in order to overcome these evil, disadvantageous things; A VIII, 74.

In Vis.M VIII it is said: 'He who wishes to develop this meditation, should retreat to solitude, and whilst living secluded he should thus wisely reflect: 'Death will come to me! The vital energy will be cut off!' Or: 'Death! Death!' To him, namely, who does not wisely reflect, sorrow may arise by thinking on the death of a beloved person, just as to a mother whilst thinking on the death of her beloved child. Again, by reflecting on the death of a disliked person, joy may arise, just as to enemies whilst thinking on the death of their enemies. Through thinking on the death of an indifferent person, however, no emotion will arise, just as to a man whose work consists in cremating the dead at the sight of a dead body. And by reflecting on one's own death fright may arise... just as at the sight of a murderer with drawn sword one becomes filled with horror. Thus, whenever seeing here or there slain or other dead beings, one should reflect on the death of such deceased persons who once lived in happiness, and one should rouse one's attentiveness, emotion and knowledge and consider thus: 'Death will come, etc.'. Only in him who considers in this way, will the hindrances nīvarana be repressed; and through the idea of death attention becomes steadfast, and the exercise reaches neighbourhood-concentration upacāra-samādhi.

According to Vis.M VIII, one may also reflect on death in the following various ways: one may think of it as a murderer with a drawn sword standing in front of oneself; or one may bear in mind that all happiness ends in death; or that even the mightiest beings on this earth are subject to death; or that we must share this body with all those innumerable worms and other tiny beings residing therein; or that life is something dependent on in-and-out breathing, and bound up with it; or that life continues only as long as the elements, food, breath, etc. are properly performing their functions; or that nobody knows when, where, and under what circumstances, death will take place, and what kind of fate we have to expect after death; or, that life is very short and limited. As it is said: 'Short, indeed, is this life of men, limited, fleeting, full or woe and torment; it is just like a dewdrop that vanishes as soon as the sun rises; like a water-bubble; like a furrow drawn in the water; like a torrent dragging everything along and never standing still; like cattle for slaughter that every moment look death in the face; A. VII, 74.

The Bhikkhu devoted to this recollection of death is at all time indefatigable, gains the idea of disgust with regard to all forms of existence, gives up delight in life, detests evil, does not hoard up things, is free from stinginess with regard to the necessities of life, the idea of impermanence anicca becomes familiar to him; and through pursuing it, the idea of misery dukkha and of impersonality anattā become present to him. Free from fear and bewilderment will he pass away at death; and should he not yet realize the Deathless State in his life-time, he will at the dissolution of the body attain to a happy course of existence; Vis.M VIII.

See Buddhist Reflections on Death, by V. F. Gunaratna WHEEL 102/103. -Buddhism and Death, by M.Q.C. Walshe WHEEL. 261.

Marvel: s. pātihāriya.

Mastery: regarding the absorptions: see: vasī - 8 stages of: abhibhāyatana

Material food: kabalinkārāhāra

Matter: materiality: see: khandha, rūpa-kalāpa.

Matured one: the: gotrabhū

Maturity-knowledge: gotrabhū-˝āna see: visuddhi VII.

Meaning: evident, and to be inferred: see: neyyatthadhamma

Meat-eating: Just as the kammical, i.e. moral, quality of any action is determined by the quality of intention cetanā underlying it, and independently of this intention nothing whatever can be called kammically advantageous or disadvantageous kusala, akusala just so it is with the merely external act of meat-eating, this being as such purely non-moral, i.e. kammically neutral avyākata.

'In 3 circumstances meat-eating is to be rejected: if one has seen, or heard, or suspects that the animal has been slaughtered expressly for one's own sake; M. 55. For if in such a case one should partake of the meat, one would as it were approve the murder of animals, and thus encourage the animal-murderer in his murderous deeds. Besides, that the Buddha never objected, in ordinary circumstances, to meat-eating may be clearly understood from many passages of the Suttas e.g. A. V. 44; VIII, 12; M. 55, etc., as also from the Vinaya, where it is related that the Buddha firmly rejected Devadatta's proposal to forbid meat-eating to the Bhikkhus; further from the fact that 10 kinds of meat were for merely external reasons forbidden to the Bhikkhus, namely from elephants, tigers, serpents, etc.

See Amagandha Sutta Sn.. Early Buddhism and the Taking of Life, by I. B. Horner WHEEL 104.

Meditation: see: bhāvanā, jhāna, samādhi.

Mental action: mano-kamma see: kamma.

Mental directing: mano-dvārāvajjana see: āvajjana

Mental construction: sankhāra see: Tab. II.

Mental function: citta-sankhāra see: sankhāra 2.

Mental image: s. nimitta kasina samādhi

Mental obduracy: ceto-khila

Merit: the 4 streams of: pu˝˝a-dhārā - For transference of merit, see: patti-dāna

Meritorious action: s. pu˝˝a, pu˝˝a-kiriya-vatthu.

Message: the 9-fold: of the buddhasāsana see: sāsana

Messengers: the 3 divine: see: deva-dūta

Method: the right: ˝āya is a name for the 8-fold path see: magga

Mettā: 'Lit: friendliness' or 'loving-kindness', is one of the 4 sublime abodes brahma-vihāra.

Micchā-ditthi: sankappa-vāca etc.: see: foll.

Micchā-magga: Atthangika: the '8-fold wrong path', is:

1: Wrong view micchā-ditthi,
2: Wrong motivation micchā-sankappa
3: Wrong speech micchā-vācā
4: Wrong bodily action micchā-kammanta
5: Wrong livelihood micchā-ājīva
6: Wrong effort micchā-vāyāma
7: Wrong awareness or mindfulness micchā-sati
8: Wrong concentration micchā-samādhi

Just as the 8-fold Right path sammā-magga so also here the 8 links are included in the group of mental constructions sankhāra-khandha see: khandha The links 2, 6, 7, 8, are inseparably bound up with every kammically-disadvantageous state of consciousness. Often are also present 3, 4, or 5, sometimes link 1.

Micchatta: 'wrongnesses' = prec.

Middha: 'lethargy': Combined with thīna 'Laziness', it forms one of the 5 hindrances nīvarana. Both may be associated with greedy consciousness see: Tab. II. and I, 23, 25, 27, 29.

Path" middle path: majjhima-patipadā

Mind: mano, cf. nāma

Mind and materiality: nāma-rūpa

Mind-base: manāyatana see: āyatana

Mind-consciousness-element: mano-vi˝˝āna-dhātu

Mind-element: mano-dhātu

Awareness or mindfulness: sati, see: satipatthāna- Right m.: see: sacca, magga

Mental-object: dhamma see: āyatana- Contemplation of the, see: satipatthāna 4.

Mind-training: 'higher': adhicitta-sikkhā, see: sikkhā.

Miracle: s. pātihāriya.

Mirth: in the Arahat: see: hasituppāda-citta

Misapprehension: s. parāmāsa

Misery" misery: contemplation of: dukkhānupassanā see: ti-lakkhana.

Moha: 'confusion', is one of the 3 disadvantageous roots mūla. The best known synonym is avijjā

Moha-carita: the 'confused-natured'; see: carita

Momentaneity: of existence: see: marana

Monkhood: the fruits of; sāma˝˝a-phala

Bhikkhus' community: sangha, further see: pabbajjā progress of the disciple.

Morality: sīla - Contemplation on, see: anussati 4.

Morality-training: higher: adhisīla-sikkhā see: sikkhā

Moral rules: the 5, 8 or 10: see: sikkhāpada.

Muccitu-kamyatā-˝āna: 'knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance'; see: visuddhi VI. 6.

Muditā: 'altruistic or sympathetic joy', is one of the 4 sublime abodes brahma-vihāra.

Mudutā: rūpa, kāya, citta: 'elasticity' of materiality, mental properties, consciousness; see: khandha I and Tab. II.

Mūla: 'roots', also called hetu, see: paccaya 1, are those conditions which through their presence determine the actual moral quality of a intentional state cetanā and the consciousness and mental properties associated therewith, in other words, the quality of kamma. There are 6 such roots, 3 kammically advantageous and 3 disadvantageous roots, viz.,: greed, hate, confusion lobha dosa, moha and greedlessness, hatelessness, unconfusedness alobha, adosa, amoha.

In A. III, 68 it is said that greed arises through unwise reflection on an attractive object, hate through unwise reflection on a repulsive object. Thus, greed lobha or rāga comprises all degrees of 'attractedness' towards an object from the faintest trace of a longing thought up to grossest egoism, whilst hatred dosa comprises all degrees of 'repulsion' from the faintest trace of ill-humor up to the highest pitch of hate and wrath.

The 3 advantageous kusala roots, greedlessness, etc., though expressed in negative terms, nevertheless possess a distinctly positive character, just as is also often the case with negative terms in other languages, for example, the negative term 'immorality', which has a decidedly positive character.

Thus, greedlessness alobha is a name for unselfishness, generosity, etc., hatelessness adosa for kindness or goodwill mettā unconfusedness amoha for understanding pa˝˝ā.

The perception of impurity is to be developed in order to overcome greed lust; loving-kindness in order to overcome hate; understanding in order to overcome confusion; A. VI, 107.

Killing, stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, lying, tale-bearing, harsh language, frivolous talk, covetousness, ill-will and wrong views see: kamma-patha these things are due either to greed, or hate, or confusion; A. X, 174.

Enraptured with lust greed, enraged with hate, blinded by confusion, overwhelmed, with mind ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at others' ruin, at the ruin of both, and he experiences mental pain and grief. And he follows evil ways in deeds, words and thought... And he really knows neither his own welfare, nor the welfare of others, nor the welfare of both. These things make him blind and ignorant, hinder his knowledge, are painful, and do not lead him to peace

The presence or absence of the 3 disadvantageous roots forms part of the mind contemplation in the Satipatthāna Sutta M. 10. They are also used for the classification of disadvantageous consciousness see: Tab. I.

See The Roots of Good and Evil, by Nyanaponika Thera WHEEL 251/253.

Multiformity-perceptions: nānatta-sa˝˝ā see: jhāna 5.

Mundane: lokiya

Mutability: Contemplation of: viparināmanupassanā see vipassanā


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