āna: 'knowledge, comprehension, intelligence,
insight', is a synonym for paññā, see
of knowledge and vision', is the last of the 7 purifications and a name for
path-knowledge maggañāna i.e. the penetrating
realization of the path of Stream-winning, Once-returning,
Non-returning or Arahatship. Vis.M XXII
furnishes a detailed explanation of it see:
In A. IV, 41 ñānadassana apparently
means the divine eye dibbacakkhu abhiññā
being produced through concentrating the mind on light.
Nānatta-saññā: The 'variety or multiformity
- perceptions are explained under jhāna
ñāna-vipphārā iddhi: the 'power of
penetrating knowledge', is one of the magical powers
ñāta-pariññā: 'full understanding or comprehension
of the known', is one of the 3 kinds of full understanding
Natthika-ditthi: 'nihilistic view' a doctrine
that all values are baseless, that nothing is knowable or can be communicated,
and that life itself is meaningless, see: ditthi
Natthi-paccaya: 'absence-condition', is
one of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Navanga-buddha: or satthu - sāsana:
ñāya: 'right method', is often used as a name for
the Noble 8-fold path see:
magga e.g. in the Satipatthāna Sutta
Nekkhamma: 'freedom from sensual lust', renunciation.
Though apparently from nir + Ö kram
'to go forth into the homeless state of a monk', this term is in the Pāli texts
nevertheless used as if it were derived from kāma
lust, and always as an antonym to kāma
It is one of the perfections see: pāramī
sankappa thought free from lust, or thought
of renunciation, is one of the 3 kinds of right motivation sammā-sankappa
the 2nd link of the Noble 8-fold path see:
magga 2, its antonym being kāmasankappa
Nesajjikanga: one of the 13
avyākata, n. feelings, see:
The 'sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception', is the name for the
fourth absorption of the immaterial sphere
arūpāvacara a semi-conscious state,
which is surpassed only by the state of complete suspense of consciousness,
called 'attainment of ceasing' nirodha-samāpatti.
See jhāna 8.
N'eva-sekha-n'āsekha: 'neither in
training nor beyond training', i.e. neither learner nor master. Thus is called
the worldling puthujjana, for he
is neither pursuing the 3-fold training sikkhā
in morality, mental culture and understanding, on the level of the first 3
paths of sanctity, nor has he completed his
training as an Arahat. See sekha-
Neyya: 'requiring guidance', is said of a person;who
through advice and questioning, through wise consideration, and through frequenting
noble-minded friends, having intercourse with them, associating with them,
gradually comes to penetrate the truth; Pug.
162. Cf. ugghatitaññū.
Neyyattha-dhamma: A 'teaching the
meaning of which is implicit, or has to be inferred' as contrasted with a 'teaching
with an explicit or evident meaning'
A. I, 60 PTS
it is said:;Whoso declares a sutta with an implicit meaning as a sutta with
explicit meaning and conversely, such a one makes a false statement with regard
to the Blessed One.; - See paramattha.
Nibbāna: Sanskrit nirvāna lit. 'ceasing'
nir + Ö va to cease blowing, to become
extinguished; according to the commentaries, 'freedom from desire' nir+
vana Nibbāna constitutes the
highest and ultimate goal of all Buddhist aspirations, i.e. absolute ceasing
of that life-affirming will manifested as greed, hate and confusion, and convulsively
clinging to existence; and therewith also the ultimate and absolute deliverance
from all future rebirth, old age, disease and death, from all suffering and
Extinction of greed, ceasing of hate, ceasing of confusion: this is called
Nibbāna; S. XXXVIII. 1.
The 2 aspects of Nibbāna are:
1: The full ceasing of defilements
kilesa-parinibbāna also called
see: It. 41, i.e. 'Nibbāna with the groups
of existence still remaining' see: upādi. This takes place at the attainment
of Arahatship, or perfect Nobility see:
2: The full ceasing of the groups of existence
khandha-parinibbāna also called
see: It. 41,
A. IV, 118, i.e. 'Nibbāna without the groups
remaining', in other words, the coming to rest, or rather the 'no-more-continuing'
of this physico-mental process of existence. This takes place at the death
of the Arahat. - App.: Nibbāna.
Sometimes both aspects take place at one and the same moment, i.e. at the
death of the Arahat; see: sama-sīsī
This, o Bhikkhus, truly is the peace, this is the highest, namely the end
of all constructions, the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth, the fading
away of craving, detachment, ceasing, Nibbāna;
A. III, 32.
Enraptured with lust rāga enraged with
anger dosa blinded by confusion
moha overwhelmed, with mind ensnared, man
aims at his own ruin, at the ruin of others, at the ruin of both, and he experiences
mental pain and grief. But if lust, anger and confusion are given up, man aims
neither at his own ruin, nor at the ruin of others, nor at the ruin of both,
and he experiences no mental pain and grief. Thus is
Nibbāna visible in this life, immediate,
inviting, attractive, and comprehensible to the wise;
A. III, 55.
Just as a rock of one solid mass remains unshaken by the wind, even so neither
visible forms, nor sounds, nor odours, nor tastes, nor bodily contacts,
neither the desired nor the undesired, can cause such a one to waver. Steadfast
is his mind, gained is deliverance; A, VI, 55.
Verily, there is an Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed. If there
were not this Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed, escape from the world
of the born, the originated, the created, the formed, would not be possible;
Ud. VIII, 3.
One cannot too often and too emphatically stress the fact that not only
for the actual realization of the goal of Nibbāna, but also for a theoretical
understanding of it, it is an indispensable preliminary condition to grasp
fully the truth of anattā, the egolessness
and insubstantiality of all forms of existence. Without such an understanding,
one will necessarily misconceive Nibbāna
- according to one's either materialistic or metaphysical leanings - either
as annihilation of an ego, or as an eternal state of existence into which an
ego or self enters or with which it merges. Hence it is said:
Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found;
The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there;
Nibbāna is, but not the man that
The path is, but no traveler on it is seen.;
Literature: For texts on Nibbāna, see path,
36ff. - See Vis.M XVI. 64ff. - Anattā
and Nibbāna, by Nyanaponika Thera WHEEL
11; The Buddhist Doctrine of Nibbāna, by Ven. P. Vajiranana & F. Story
Nibbatti: 'arising', 'rebirth', is a synonym
morality concentration, understanding connected with penetration'; see:
of aversion', is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight; see:
2, visuddhi VI, 5.
perception or consciousness, or view of permanency, is one of the 4 perversions
Nīla-kasina: 'blue-kasina exercise' see:
Nimitta: mark, sign; image; target, object;
cause, condition. These meanings are used in, and adapted to, many contexts
of which only the doctrinal ones are mentioned here.
1. 'Mental reflex-image', obtained in meditation. In full clarity, it
will appear in the mind by successful practice of certain concentration-exercises
and will then appear as vividly as if seen by the eye. The object perceived
at the very beginning of concentration is called the preparatory image
parikamma-nimitta The still
unsteady and unclear image, which arises when the mind has reached a weak
degree of concentration, is called the acquired image
uggaha-nimitta An entirely clear
and immovable image arising at a higher degree of concentration is the counter-image
patibhāga-nimitta As soon
as this image arises, the stage of neighbourhood or access concentration
upacāra-samādhi is reached.
For further details, see: kasina,
2. 'Sign of previous kamma' kamma-nimitta and 'sign of the future destiny'
these arise as mental objects of the last kammic consciousness before death
maranāsanna-kamma see: kamma,
Usages 1 and 2 are commentarial see: App..
In sutta usage, the term occurs, e.g. as:
3. 'Outward appearance': of one who has sense-control it is said that he
does not seize upon the general appearance' of an object na nimittaggāhī
D. 2; expl. Vis I, 54f; see
4. 'Object': the six objects, i.e. visual, etc.
a href=dic2-abbrev.htm#S. S. XXII, 3. Also, when in explanation of
signless deliverance of mind see: ceto-vimutti
vimokkha it is said, sabba-nimittānam
amanasikārā it refers to the 6 sense-objects
M. 43, and has therefore to be rendered;by
paying no attention to any object or object-ideas.; - A pleasant or beautiful
object subha-nimitta is
a condition to the arising of the hindrance of sense-desire; a 'repellent
for the hindrance of ill-will; contemplation on the impurity of an object
asubha-nimitta see: asubha
is an antidote to sense-desire.
5. In Pts.M. II, in a repetitive series
of terms, nimitta appears together
with uppādo origin of existence, pavattam continuity of existence,
and may then be rendered by 'condition of existence' see:
Nimmāna-rati: the name of a class of divine
beings of the sense-sphere; s. deva
Nine abodes of beings: s.
Ninefold dispensation: s:
Nipphanna-rūpa: 'produced materiality',
is identical with rūpa-rūpa 'materiality
proper', i.e. material or actual materiality, as contrasted with 'unproduced
materiality' anipphanna-rūpa consisting
of mere qualities or modes of materiality, e.g.
impermanence, etc., which are also enumerated among the 28 phenomena of
the materiality group. See khandha
Summary I; Vis.M XIV, 73.
Niraya: lit. 'the downward-Path',
the nether or infernal world, usually translated by 'hell', is one of the 4
lower courses of existence apāya. The
Buddhists are well aware that on account of the universal sway of
impermanence a life in hell, just as in heaven,
cannot last eternally, but will after exhaustion of the kamma which has caused
the respective form of rebirth, necessarily be followed again by a new death
and a new rebirth, according to the stored-up kamma.
Nirodha: 'ceasing'; see:
Nirodhānupassanā: 'contemplation of ceasing',
is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight vipassanā.
See ānāpānasati 15.
Nirodha-samāpatti: 'attainment of ceasing'
S. XIV, 11, also called
ceasing of feeling and perception', is the temporary suspension of all consciousness
and mental activity, following immediately upon the semi-conscious state called
'sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception' see:
jhāna. The absolutely necessary pre-conditions
to its attainment are said to be perfect mastery of all the 8 absorptions
jhāna as well as the previous attainment
of Anāgāmi or Arahatship see: ariya-puggala
According to Vis.M XXIII, the entering
into this state takes place in the following way: by means of mental tranquillity
samatha and insight
vipassanā one has to pass through all
the 8 absorptions one after the other up to the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
and then one has to bring this state to an end. If, namely, according to the
Vis.M, the disciple Anāgāmi or Arahat
passes through the absorption merely by means of tranquillity, i.e. concentration,
he will only attain the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, and
then come to a standstill; if, on the other hand, he proceeds only with insight,
he will reach the fruition phala of Anāgāmi
or Arahatship. He, however, who by means of both abilities has risen from absorption
to absorption and, having made the necessary preparations, brings the sphere
of neither-perception-nor-non-perception to an end, such a one reaches the
state of ceasing. Whilst the disciple is passing through the 8 absorptions,
he each time emerges from the absorption attained, and regards with his insight
all the mental phenomena constituting that special absorption, as impermanent,
miserable and impersonal. Then he again enters the next higher absorption,
and thus, after each absorption practising insight, he at last reaches the
state of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, and thereafter the full ceasing.
This state, according to the Com., may
last for 7 days or even longer. Immediately at the rising from this state,
however, there arises in the Anāgāmi the fruition of Anāgāmiship
in the Arahat the fruition of Arahatship arahatta-phala.
With regard to the difference existing between the Bhikkhu abiding in this
state of ceasing on the one hand, and a dead person on the other hand, M 43
says:;In him who is dead, and whose life has come to an end, the bodily in-and-outbreathing,
verbal thought-conception and discursive thinking, and mental functions see:
sankhāra 2 have become suspended and
come to a standstill, life is exhausted, the vital heat extinguished, the abilities
are destroyed. Also in the Bhikkhu who has reached 'ceasing of perception and
the bodily, verbal and mental functions have been suspended and come to a standstill,
but life is not exhausted, the vital heat not extinguished, and the abilities
are not destroyed
For details, see Vis.M XXIII; for texts
see: path 206.
Nirutti-patisambhidā: the 'analytical
knowledge of language', is one of the 4
Nissarana-pahāna: 'overcoming by escape',
is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming pahāna.
Nissaya: 'foundation'. The 2 wrong foundations
of morality are craving tanhā-nissaya
and views ditthi-nissaya
Hence there are two wrong bases of morality: morality based on craving
tanhā-nissita-sīla and morality
based on views ditthi-nissita-sīla.
'Based on craving' is that kind of morality which has come about by the
desire for a happy existence, e.g.: 'O that by this morality I might become
a godlike or divine being!' A.IX, 172. 'Based
on views' is that morality which has been induced by the view that through
the observation of certain moral rules purification may be attained;
Nissaya-paccaya: 'support', base, foundation,
is one of the 24 conditions see: paccaya
Nītattha-dhamma: A 'doctrine with evident
meaning', contrasted with a 'doctrine with a meaning to be inferred'
neyyattha-dhamma. See also
Nīvarana: 'hindrances', are 5 qualities which
are obstacles to the mind and blind our mental vision. In the presence of them
we cannot reach neighbourhood-concentration
upacāra-samādhi and full concentration
appanā-samādhi, and are unable
to discern clearly the truth. They are:
1. sense-desire kāmacchanda,
2. ill-will vyāpāda,
3. lethargy and Laziness thīna-middha,
4. restlessness and regrets uddhacca-kukkucca and
5. skeptical doubt vicikicchā.
In the beautiful similes in A. V, 193,
sense-desire is compared with water mixed with many colours, ill-will with
boiling water, lethargy and Laziness with water covered by moss, restlessness
and regrets with agitated water whipped by the wind, skeptical doubt with turbid
and muddy water. Just as in such water one cannot perceive one's own reflection,
so in the presence of these 5 mental hindrances, one cannot clearly discern
one's own benefit, nor that of others, nor that of both.
Regarding the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances on entering the first
absorption, the stereotype sutta text e g. A.
IX, 40 runs as follows:
He has cast away sense-desire; he dwells with a heart free from sense-desire;
from desire he cleanses his heart.
He has cast away ill-will; he dwells with a heart free from ill-will, cherishing
love and Pity toward all living beings, he cleanses his heart from ill-will.
He has cast away lethargy and Laziness; he dwells free from lethargy and
Laziness; loving the light, with watchful mind, with clear consciousness, he
cleanses his mind from lethargy and Laziness.
He has cast away restlessness and regrets; dwelling with mind undisturbed,
with heart full of peace, he cleanses his mind from restlessness and regrets.
He has cast away skeptical doubt; dwelling free from doubt, full of confidence
in the good, he cleanses his heart from doubt.
He has put aside these 5 hindrances, and come to know these paralysing defilements
of the mind. And far from sensual contacts, far from disadvantageous things,
he enters into the first absorption, etc
The overcoming of these 5 hindrances by the absorptions is, as already pointed
out, a merely temporary suspension, called 'overcoming through repression'
disappear forever on entering the 4 supra-mundane
ariya-puggala i.e. skeptical doubt
on reaching Sotāpanship; sense-desire, ill-will and mental worry on reaching
Anāgāmiship; lethargy, Laziness and restlessness on reaching Arahatship.
For their origination and their overcoming, see:
A. I, 2; VI, 21;
S. XLVI, 51.
See The Five Mental Hindrances, by Nyanaponika Thera
Niyāma: the 'fixedness of law' regarding all things;
cf.tathatā - pañca-niyāma
is a commentarial term, signifying the 'fivefold lawfulness' or 'natural order'
that governs: 1 temperature, seasons and other physical events
2 the plant life bīja-n. 3 kamma
kamma-n. 4 the mind
citta-n e.g. the lawful sequence
of the functions of consciousness see:
viññāna-kicca in the process of
cognition; 5 certain events connected with the Dhamma
dhamma-n e.g. the typical events
occurring in the lives of the Buddhas. App..
Niyata-micchāditthi: 'wrong views
with fixed destiny', are the views of uncausedness of existence
ahetuka-ditthi of the inefficacy
of action akiriya-ditthi and
nihilism natthika-ditthi For
details, see: ditthi and
Niyata-puggala: a 'person with a fixed
destiny', may be either one who has committed one of the 5 'heinous actions
with immediate result' ānantarika-kamma,
or one who follows 'wrong views with fixed destiny' niyata-micchā-ditthi,
or one who has reached one of the 4 stages of Nobility see:
ariya-puggala About the latter cf.
the frequent passage:;Those disciples in whom the 3 mental chains of personality-belief,
sceptical doubt and attachment to mere rules and ritual; see:
samyojana have vanished, they all have
entered the stream, have forever escaped the states of woe; fixed is their
destiny niyata assured their final enlightenment
Noble abodes: s.
Noble family: Passing from n.f. to
n.f.: kolankola see: sotāpaññā.
Noble power: ariya
Noble truths: the 4:
sacca- The 2-fold knowledge of the n.t.;
Noble usages: the 4:
avigata-paccaya is one of the
24 conditions paccaya.
no-self: s. anattā
No-upādā-rūpa: 'underived materiality',
designates the 4 primary elements mahābhūta or
dhātu, as distinguished from the 'derived