Pabbajjā: lit. 'the going forth', or more fully
stated, 'the going forth from home to the homeless life' of a Bhikkhu agārasmā,
anagāriyam consists in severing all family and social ties to live the
pure life of a monk, in order to realize the goal of final deliverance pointed
out by the Enlightened One. Thus, p. has become the name for admission
as a sāmanera or novice, i.e. as a candidate for the Order of Bhikkhus,
See Going Forth, by Sumana Samanera WHEEL
Ordination in Theravāda Buddhism WHEEL
knowledge', refers to the recollected mental image obtained in concentration,
or to any inner experience just passed, as for instance, any absorption
jhāna, or any supra-mundane
path, or fruition of the
path, etc. see:
ariya-puggala As it is said:;At
the end of fruitional consciousness, consciousness sinks into the subconscious
stream of existence bhavanga-sota.
Then, breaking off the stream of existence, mental directing manodvārāvajjana
arises at the mind-door, for the purpose of reviewing the just passed
path-moment. Now, as soon as this stage has
passed, 7 moments of impulse consciousness javana-citta one after the other, flash up
while reviewing the path. After they again have
sunk into the subconscious stream, there arise, for the purpose of reviewing
the fruition of the path the moments of directing
and impulsion, during whose arising the Bhikkhu is reviewing the
path, reviewing the fruition, reviewing the
abandoned defilements, reviewing the still remaining defilements, reviewing
Nibbāna as object. 'This blessing have
I attained'. 'This and that defilement still remains in me'. 'This object have
I beheld in my mind', etc.; Vis.M XXII.
Paccavekkhana-suddhi: 'purity of
reflection', is a name for wise consideration in using the 4 requisites allowed
to the monk, i.e. robes, food, dwelling, and medicine;
Paccaya: 'condition', is something on which something
else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the
latter cannot be. Many are the ways in which one thing, or one occurrence,
may be the condition for some other thing, or occurrence. In the Patthāna,
the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka comprising 6 large vols. in the Siamese
edition, these 24 modes of conditionality are enumerated and explained, and
then applied to all conceivable mental and physical phenomena and occurrences,
and thus their conditioned nature is demonstrated.
The first two volumes of the Patthāna have been translated into English
by the Venerable U Nārada mūla patthāna
Sayadaw of Burma, under the title Conditional Relations Published by the Pāli
Text Society, London 1969, 1981. For a synopsis of this work, see
The 24 modes of conditionality are:
1. Root condition: hetu
2. Object: ārammana
3. Predominance: adhipati
4. Proximity: anantara
5. Contiguity: samanantara
6. Co-nascence: sahajāta
7. Mutuality: aññamañña
8. Support: nissaya
9. Decisive Support: upanissaya
10. Pre-nascene: purejāta
11. Post-nascene: pacchājāta
12. Repitition: āsevana
13. Kamma: kamma
14. Kamma-result: vipāka
15. Nutriment: āhāra
16. Ability: indriya
17. Jhāna: jhāna
18. path: magga
19. Associaton: sampayutta
20. Dissociation: vippayutta
21. Presence: atthi
22. Absence: natthi
23. Disappearance: vigata
24. Non-disappearance: avigata
1: Root-condition hetu-paccaya
is that condition that resembles the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on
its root, and remains alive only as long as its root is not destroyed, similarly
all kammically advantageous and disadvantageous mental states are entirely
dependent on the simultaneity and presence of their respective roots, i.e,
of greed lobha, hate
moha or greedlessness
amoha For the definition of these 6 roots,
The roots are a condition by way of root for the mental phenomena associated
with a root, and for the material phenomena produced thereby e.g. for bodily
2: Object-condition ārammana-paccaya
is called something which, as object, forms the condition for consciousness
and mental phenomena. Thus, the physical object of sight consisting in colour
and light 'light-wave', is the necessary condition and the sine qua non for
the arising of visual-consciousness cakkhu-viññāna
etc.; sound 'sound wave' for ear-consciousness sotā-viññāna
etc.; further, any object arising in the mind is the condition for mind-consciousness
The mental-object may be anything whatever, material or mental, past, present
or future, real or imaginary.
adhipati-paccaya is the term
for 4 things, on the preponderance and predominance of which are dependent
the mental phenomena associated with them, namely: concentrated intention
citta and investigation vīmamsā
In one and the same state of consciousness, however, only one of these 4 phenomena
can be predominant at a time.;Whenever such phenomena as consciousness and
mental properties are arising by giving preponderance to one of these 4 things,
then this phenomenon is for the other phenomena a condition by way of predominance;
4-5: Proximity and contiguity or immediacy-condition anantara and
samanantara-paccaya - both
being identical - refer to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena
associated with them, which are the conditions for the immediately following
stage in the process of consciousness. For example, in the visual process,
visual-consciousness is for the immediately following mindelement - performing
the function of receiving the visible object - a condition by way of contiguity;
and so is this mind-element for the next following mind-consciousness element,
performing the function of investigating the object, etc. Cf.
6: Co-nascence condjtion sahajāta-paccaya
i.e. condition by way of simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another
one forms, a condition in such a way that, simultaneously with its arising,
also the other thing must arise. Thus, for instance, in one and the same moment
each of the 4 mental groups feeling, perception, mental constructions and consciousness
is for the 3 other groups a condition by way of co-nascence or co-arising;
or again each of the 4 physical elements solid, liquid, heat, motion is such
a condition for the other 3 elements. Only at the moment of conception in the
mother's womb does materiality physical base of mind serve for the 4 mental
groups as a condition by way of conascence.
7: Condition by way of mutuality
aññāmañña-paccaya All the just mentioned associated and co-nascent
mental phenomena, as well as the 4 physical elements, are, of course, at the
same time also conditioned by way of mutuality,;just like three sticks propped
up one by another.; The 4 mental groups are one for another a condition by
way of mutuality. So also are the 4 elements, and also mentality and materiality
at the moment of conception.
8: Support-condition nissaya-paccaya
This condition refers either to a pre-nascent see: 10 or co-nascent see: 6
phenomenon which is aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation or
base, just as the trees have the earth as their foundation, or as the oil-painting
rests on the canvas. In this way, the 5 sense-organs and the physical base
of the mind are for the corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent,
i.e. previously arisen, condition by way of support. Further all co-nascent
see: 6 phenomena are mutually see: 7 conditioned by each other by way of support.
9: Decisive-support or inducement condition
upanissaya-paccaya is threefold,
namely a by way of object ārammanūpanissaya-paccaya
b by way of proximity anantarūpanissaya c natural decisive support
pakatupanissaya These conditions act as strong inducement or cogent
a Anything past, present or future, material or mental, real or imaginary,
may, as object of our thinking, become a decisive support, or strong inducement,
to moral, immoral or kammically neutral states of mind. Evil things, by wrong
thinking about them, become an inducement to immoral life; by right thinking,
an inducement to moral life. But good things may be an inducement not only
to similarly good things, but also to bad things, such as self-conceit, vanity,
b; is identical with proximity condition No. 4.
c Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, or the influence of
climate, food, etc., on one's body and mind, may act as natural and decisive
support-conditions. Faith may be a direct and natural inducement to charity,
virtue to mental training, etc.; greed to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable
food and climate to ill-health; friends to spiritual progress or deterioration.
10: Pre-nascence-condition purejāta-paccaya
refers to something previously arisen, which forms a base for something arising
later on. For example, the 5 physical sense-organs and the physical base of
mind, having already arisen at the time of birth, form the condition for the
consciousness arising later, and for the mental phenomena associated therewith.
11: Post-nascence-condition pacchā-jāta-paccaya
refers to consciousness and the phenomena therewith associated, because they
are - just as is the feeling of hunger- a necessary condition for the preservation
of this already arisen body.
12: Repetition-condition āsevana-paccaya
refers to the kammical consciousness, in which each time the preceding impulse
are for all the succeeding ones a condition by way of repetition and frequency,
just as in learning by heart, through constant repetition, the later recitation
becomes gradually easier and easier.
13: Kamma-condition kamma-paccaya
The pre-natal kamma i.e kamma-intentions, kamma-cetanā in a previous birth is the generating
condition cause of the 5 sense-organs, the fivefold sense-consciousness, and
the other kamma-produced mental and material phenomena in a later birth. -
Kammical intention is also a condition by way of kamma for the co-nascent mental
phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no way kamma-results.
14: Kamma-result-condition vipāka-paccaya
The kamma-resultant 5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a condition by way of
kamma-result for the co-nascent mental and material phenomena.
15: Nutriment-condition āhāra-paccaya
For the 4 nutriments, see: āhāra
16: Ability-condition indriya-paccaya
This condition applies to 20 abilities indriya,
leaving out No. 7 and 8 from the 22 abilities. Of these 20 abilities, the 5
physical sense-organs 1 - 5, in their capacity as abilities, form a condition
only for unmaterial phenomena visual-consciousness etc.; physical vitality 6 and
all the remaining abilities, for the co-nascent mental and material phenomena.
17: Jhāna-condition jhāna-paccaya
is a name for the 7 so-called jhāna-factors, as these form a condition to the
co-nascent mental and material phenomena, to wit: 1 thought-conception vitakka
2 discursive thinking vicāra 3 interest
pīti 4 joy
sukha 5 sadness domanassa
6 indifference upekkhā 7 concentration
samādhi For definition s. Pāli terms.
1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy consciousness see:
Tab. I. 22-25; 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful consciousness
ib. 30, 31; 1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of confused consciousness ib. 32, 33.
This condition does not only apply to jhāna
alone, but also to the general intensifying 'absorbing' impact of these 7 factors.
magga-paccaya refers to the 12
path-factors, as these are for the kammically
advantageous and disadvantageous mental phenomena associated with them, a way
of escape from this or that mental constitution, namely: 1 knowledge paññā
= sammāditthi right understanding, 2 right or wrong thought-conception
vitakka 3 right speech sammā-vācā
4 right bodily action sammā-kammanta,
5 right livelihood sammā-ājīva 6 right or wrong energy
viriya 7 right or wrong awareness or
mindfulness sati 8 right or wrong concentration
samādhi 9 wrong views micchāditthi
10 wrong speech micchā-vācā 11
wrong bodily action micchā-kammanta
12 wrong livelihood micchā-ājīva Cf.
19: Association-condition sampayutta-paccaya
refers to the co-nascent see: 6 and mutually see: 7 conditioned 4 mental groups
khandha as they aid each other by their
being associated, by having a common physical base, a common object, and by
their arising and disappearing simultaneously;
vippayutta-paccaya refers to such phenomena as aid other phenomena
by not baving the same physical base eye, etc. and objects. Thus material phenomena
are for mental phenomena, and conversely, a condition by way of dissociation,
whether co-nascent or not.
21: Presence-condition atthi-paccaya
refers to a phenomenon - being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its
presence is a condition for other phenomena. This condition applies to the
conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11.
22: Absence-condition natthi-paccaya
refers to consciousness, etc., which has just passed, and which thus forms
the necessary condition for the immediately following stage of consciousness
by giving it an opportunity to arise. Cf. No. 4.
23: Disappearance-condition vigata-paccaya
is identical with No. 22.
avigata-paccaya is identical with No. 21.
These 24 conditions should be known thoroughly for a detailed understanding
of that famous formula of the dependent origination
Guide p. 117 ff.
See The Significance of Dependent Origination, by Nyanatiloka
'morality consisting in the wise use of the monk's requisities'; see:
Pacceka-bodhi: 'solitary enlightenment';
see: the foll. and bodhi.
Pacceka-buddha: an 'Solitarily Enlightened
One'; or Separately or Individually =pacceka Enlightened One renderings
by 'Silent' or 'Private Buddha' are not very apt. This is a term for an Arahat
see: ariya-puggala who has realized
Nibbāna without having heard the Buddha's
doctrine from others. He comprehends the 4 Noble Truths individually pacceka
independent of any teacher, by his own effort. He has, however, not the capacity
to proclaim the Teaching effectively to others, and therefore does not become
a 'Teacher of Gods and Men', a Perfect or Universal Buddha sammā-sambuddha.
Paccekabuddhas are described as frugal of speech, cherishing solitude. According
to tradition, they do not arise while the Teaching of a Perfect Buddha is known;
but for achieving their rank after many aeons of effort, they have to utter
an aspiration before a Perfect Buddha.
Canonical references are few; Pug.
29 defin.; A. II, 56; in
M. 116, names of many Paccekabuddhas are
given; in D. 16 they are said to be
worthy of a thūpa dagoba; the Treasure-Store Sutta Nidhikhandha
Sutta, Khp. mentions
pacceka-bodhi the C. Nidd. ascribes
to individual Paccekabuddhas the verses of the Rhinoceros Sutta Khaggavisāna
Sutta, Sn. - See bodhi.
See The Paccekabuddha, by Ria Kloppenborg
is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Pādaka-jjhāna: 'foundation-forming absorption',
is an absorption used as a foundation, or starting point, for the higher spiritual
powers abhiññā, or for insight
vipassanā, leading to the supra-mundane
ariya-puggala The foundation
for the former is the 4th absorption; for insight, however, any absorption
is suitable. For details, see: samatha-vipassanā -
Pada-parama: 'one for whom the words are the
utmost attainment'.;Whoever, though having learned much, speaking much, knowing
many things by heart, and discoursing much, has not penetrated the truth, such
a man is called by that name; Pug. 163.
Padhāna: 'effort.' The 4 right efforts
samma-padhāna forming the 6th
stage of the 8-fold path i.e. sammā-vāyāma
see: magga are: 1 the effort to avoid
samvara-padhāna 2 to overcome
3 to develop bhāvanā-padhāna
4 to maintain anurakkhana-padhāna
i.e. 1 the effort to avoid disadvantageous
akusala states, such as evil thoughts, etc. 2 to overcome disadvantageous
states, 3 to develop advantageous kusala
states, such as the 7 elements of enlightenment
bojjhanga, 4 to maintain the advantageous
The Bhikkhu rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, disadvantageous
things not yet arisen... to overcome them... to develop advantageous things
not yet arisen... to maintain them, and not to let them disappear, but to bring
them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development. And
he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives;
A. IV, 13.
1;What now, o Bhikkhus, is the effort to avoid? Perceiving a form, or a
sound, or an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or mental contact, the Bhikkhu
neither adheres to the whole nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off
that through which evil and disadvantageous things might arise, such as greed
and sorrow, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his
senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort to avoid.
2;What now is the effort to overcome? The Bhikkhu does not retain any thought
of sensual lust, or any other evil, disadvantageous states that may have arisen;
he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them, causes them to disappear. This
is called the effort to overcome.
3;What now is the effort to develop? The Bhikkhu develops the factors of
enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment, on ceasing, and ending in
deliverance, namely: awareness or mindfulness
sati investigation of the law dhamma-vicaya energy viriya rapture
upekkhā This is called the effort to
4;What now is the effort to maintain? The Bhikkhu keeps firmly in his mind
a favourable object of concentration, such as the mental image of a skeleton,
a corpse infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour, a festering corpse,
a corpse riddled with holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the effort
to maintain; A. IV, 14.
Padhāniyanga: 'elements of
effort', are the following 5 qualities: faith, health, sincerity, energy,
M. 85, 90;
A. V. 53. See
Pāguññatā: 'proficiency', namely, of mental
and of consciousness citta-pāguññatā
are 2 mental phenomena associated with all advantageous consciousness. Cf.
Pahāna: 'overcoming', abandoning. There are 5 kinds
of overcoming: 1 overcoming by repression
the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances
nīvarana during the absorptions, 2 overcoming by the opposite
tadanga-pahāna 3 overcoming
by destruction samuccheda-pahāna
4 overcoming by tranquillization
patipassaddhi-pahāna 5 overcoming by escape
1: Among these, 'overcoming by repression' is the pushing back of adverse
things, such as the 5 mental hindrances nīvarana
q.v, etc., through this or that mental concentration
samādhi, just as a pot thrown into
moss-clad water pushes the moss aside.
2: Overcoming by the opposite' is the overcoming by opposing this or that
thing that is to be overcome, by this or that factor of knowledge belonging
to insight vipassanā, just as a
lighted lamp dispels the darkness of the night. In this way, the personality-belief
sakkāyaditthi see: ditthi is
overcome by determining the mental and material phenomena... the view of uncausedness
of existence by investigation into the conditions... the idea of eternity
by contemplation of impermanency... the idea of happiness by experience of Danger.
3: If through the knowledge of the noble path
see: ariya-puggala the mental
chains and other evil things cannot continue any longer, just like a tree
destroyed by lightning, then such an overcoming is called 'overcoming by destruction'Vis.M
4: When, after the disappearing of the mental chains at the entrance into
the paths, the mental chains, from the moment
of fruition phala onwards, are forever
extinct and stilled, such overcoming is called the 'overcoming by tranquillization'.
5;The 'overcoming by escape' is identical with the ceasing and Nibbāna;
Pts.M. I. 27.
Pain: feeling of: see:
Pakati-sīla: 'natural or genuine morality',
is distinct from those outward rules of conduct laid down for either laymen
or Bhikkhus. Those later are the so-called 'prescribed morality' paññāttisīla
Pakati-upanissaya: 'direct inducement';
Palibodha: 'obstacles', is the term for the
following things if they obstruct the Bhikkhu in the strict practice of a subject
of meditation: a crowded monastery, travelling, relatives, association with
lay folk, gifts, pupils, repairs in the monastery, sickness, study, magical
power. The latter, however, may become an obstacle only in developing insight
Vis.M III, 29ff. -
Pamsukūlik'anga: the 'vow to wear only
robes made from picked-up rags', is one of the ascetic rules of purification;
Pānātipātā veramanī: 'abstaining from
the killing of living beings', is the first of the 5 moral rules binding upon
all Buddhists; see: sikkhāpada
Pañcadvārāvajjana: 'directing to the
5-sense-doors'; see: viññāna-kicca
Pañca-vokāra-bhava: 'five-group existence',
is a name for existence in the sense-sphere
kāmāvacara or in the fine-material sphere
avacara since all the 5 groups of existence
khandha are found there. In the immaterial
sphere arūpāvacara see:
avacara however, only the 4 mental
groups are found, and in the world of unconscious beings asaññā-satta
only the one materiality group. Cf
eka-vokāra-bhava and catu-pañca-vokāra-bhāva further see:
Pañhā-byākarana: 'answering questions'.;There
are, o Bhikkhus, 4 ways of answering questions: there are questions requiring
a direct answer; questions requiring an explanation; questions to be answered
by counter-questions; questions to be rejected as wrongly put.; See
A. III, 68; A.
Paññā: 'understanding, knowledge,
comprises a very wide field. The specific Buddhist knowledge or
as part of the Noble 8-fold path
magga to deliverance, is insight
vipassanā, i.e. that intuitive knowledge
which brings about the 4 stages of Nobility and the realization of
ariya-puggala and which consists
in the penetration of the impermanency anicca,
see: sacca and
anattā of all forms of existence. Further details, see: under
With regard to the condition of its arising one distinguishes 3 kinds of
knowledge knowledge based on thinking cintā-mayā-paññā
knowledge based on learning suta-mayā-paññā
knowledge based on mental development bhāvanā
'Based on thinking' is that knowledge which one has accquired through one's
own thinking, without having learnt it from others. 'Based on learning' is
that knowledge which one has heard from others and thus acquired through learning.
'Based on mental development' is that knowledge which one has acquired through
mental development in this or that way, and which has reached the stage of
full concentration; appanā Vis.M
Wisdom is one of the 5 mental abilities see:
bala one of the 3 kinds of training
sikkhā, and one of the perfections see:
pāramī For further details, see: vipassanā
and the detailed exposition in Vis.M XIV,
Paññatti-sīla: 'prescribed morality', is
a name for the disciplinary rules of the Bhikkhu or layman prescribed by the
Buddha, as distinguished from natural or genuine morality
Paññā-vimutti: 'deliverance through
understanding' or understanding', signifies, according to
A.V, 142, the understanding associated with the fruition
of Nobility arahatta-phala In
Pug. 31 and similarly in
M. 70, it is said:;A Bhikkhu may not have
reached in his own person the 8 liberations =jhāna,
but through his understanding the fermentations have come to ceasing in him. Such
a person is called understanding-liberated; paññā
-vimutta. Com. to
Pug.:;He may be one of five persons:
either a practiser of bare insight sukha-vipassako, or one who has attained to Nobility after rising from one
of the absorptions.; See S. XII, 7.
The term is often linked with ceto-vimutti
deliverance of mind'.
Papañca: Sanskrit prapañca In doctrinal
usage, it signifies the expansion, differentiation, 'diffuseness' or 'manifoldness'
of the world; and it may also refer to the 'phenomenal world' in general, and
to the mental attitude of 'worldliness'. In A.
IV, 173, it is said:;As far as the field of sixfold sense-contact extends,
so far reaches the world of diffuseness or the phenomenal world; papañcassa
gati as far as the world of diffuseness
extends, so far extends the field of sixfold sense-contact. Through the
complete fading away and cessation of the field of sixfold sense-contact,
there comes about the cessation and the coming-to-rest of the world of diffuseness
papañca-vupasamo. The opposite
term nippapañca is a name for
LIII, in the sense of 'freedom from samsaric diffuseness'. -
Dhp. 254:;Mankind delights in the diffuseness
of the world, the Perfect Ones are free from such diffuseness; papañcābhiratā
pajā nippapañca tathāgatā
The 8th of the 'thoughts of a great man' mahā-purisa-vitakka
A. VIII, 30 has:,This Dhamma is for one who
delights in non-diffuseness the unworldly, Nibbāna; it is not for him who delights
in worldliness papañca. For the psychological
sense of 'differentiation', see M. 18 Madhupindika
Sutta:;Whatever man conceives vitakketi that he differentiates papañceti
and what he differentiates, by reason thereof ideas and considerations of differentiation
-sankhā arise in him.; On this text and the term
papañca see Dr. Kurt Schmidt in German
Buddhist Writers WHEEL
74/75 p. 61ff.
- See D. 21 Sakka's Quest;
In the commentaries, we often find a threefold classification tanhā-,
ditthi-, māna-papañca which probably means the world's diffuseness created
hy craving, false views and conceit. - See
A. IV, 173; A.
VI, 14, Sn. 530, 874, 916.
ñānananda Bhikkhu, in Concept and Reality: An Essay on Papañca and Papañca-saññā-sankhā
Kandy 1971, Buddhist Publication Society, suggests that the term refers to
man's;tendency towards proliferation in the realm of concepts; and proposes
a rendering by;conceptual proliferation,; which appears convincing in psychological
context, e.g. in two of the texts quoted above,
A. IV, 173 and
M. 18. - The threefold classification
of papañca by way of craving,
false views and conceit, is explained by the author as three aspects, or
instances, of the foremost of delusive conceptualisations, the ego-concept.
Parāmāsa: 'adherence', attachment, 'misapprehension',
is according to Vis.M XXII a name for
wrong views; in that sense it occurs in Dhs.
1174 ff. - See sīlabbata-parāmāsa.
Paramattha: sacca-vacana-Desanā 'truth or term, exposition that
is true in the highest or ultimate sense', as contrasted with the 'conventional
truth' vohāra-sacca which is also
called 'commonly accepted truth' sammuti-sacca
in Skr: samvrti-satya The Buddha, in explaining his doctrine,
sometimes used conventional language and sometimes the philosophical mode of
expression which is in accordance whith unconfused insight into reality. In
that ultimate sense, existence is a mere process of physical and mental phenomena
within which, or beyond which, no real ego-entity nor any abiding substance
can ever be found. Thus, whenever the suttas speak of man, woman or person,
or of the rebirth of a being, this must not be taken as being valid in the
ultimate sense, but as a mere conventional mode of speech vohāra-vacana.
It is one of the main characteristics of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, in distinction
from most of the Sutta Pitaka, that it does not employ conventional language,
but deals only with ultimates, or realities in the highest sense
paramattha-dhammā But also
in the Sutta Pitaka there are many expositions in terms of ultimate language
namely, wherever these texts deal with the groups
dhātu or sense-sources
āyatana and their components; and wherever
the 3 characteristics
tilakkhana are applied. The majority
of Sutta texts, however, use the conventional language, as appropriate in a
practical or ethical context, because it;would not be right to say that 'the
groups' khandha feel shame, etc
It should be noted, however, that also statements of the Buddha couched
in conventional language, are called 'truth' vohāra-sacca
being correct on their own level, which does not contradict the fact that such
statements ultimately refer to impermanent and impersonal processes.
The two truths - ultimate and conventional - appear in that form only in
the commentaries, but are implied in a sutta-distinction of 'explicit or direct
meaning' nītattha and 'implicit meaning to be inferred' neyyattha
Further, the Buddha repeatedly mentioned his reservations when using conventional
speech, e.g. in D. 9:,These are merely
names, expressions, turns of speech, designations in common use in the world,
which the Perfect Qne Tathāgata uses without misapprehending them.; See also
S. I. 25.
The term paramattha in the
sense here used, occurs in the first para. of the Kathāvatthu, a work of the
Abhidhamma Pitaka see: Guide, p. 62.
The commentarial discussions on these truths
D. 9 and
M. 5 have not yet been translated in full.
On these see K N. Jayatilleke, Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge London, 1963,
In Mahāyana, the Mādhyamika school has given a prominent place to the teaching
of the two truths.
'perfection'. Ten qualities leading to Buddhahood: 1 perfection in giving
or generosity; dāna-pāramī 2 morality
sīla-p 3 renunciation
paññā-p 5 energy
viriya-p 6 patience or forbearance;
khanti 7 truthfulness
sacca-p 8 resolution
adhitthāna-p 9 loving-kindness
mettā-p 10 equanimity
These qualities were developed and brought to maturity by the Bodhisatta
in his past existences, and his way of practising them is illustrated in many
of the Birth Stories Jātaka, of which, however, only the verses are regarded
as canonical. Apart from the latter, the 10 pāramī are mentioned in
only two other canonical works which are probably apocryphal, the Buddhavamsa
in the Story of Sumedha and the Cariyapitaka. A long and methodical exposition
of the pāramī is given in the concluding Miscellaneous Section pakinnakakathā
of the Com. to Cariyapitaka
In Vis.M IX it is said that through
developing the 4 sublime states loving-kindness, Pity, altruistic joy, equanimity;
see: brahma-vihāra one may reach
these 10 perfections, namely:
As the Great Beings mahā-satta
a synonym often found in the Mahāyana scriptures for Bodhisatta, i.e. 'Enlightenment
Being or Being destined for Buddhahood are concerned about the welfare of living
beings, not tolerating the suffering of beings, wishing long duration to the
higher states of happiness of beings, and being impartial and just to all beings,
therefore 1: They give food dāna to all
beings so that they may be happy, without Investigating whether they are worthy
or not. 2: By avoiding to do them any harm, they observe morality
sīla. 3: In order to bring morality to
perfection, they train themselves in renunciation
nekkhamma 4: In order to
understand clearly what is beneficial and injurious to beings, they purify
paññā 5: For the sake of the welfare
and happiness of others they constantly exert their energy
viriya 6: Though having become heroes
through utmost energy, they are nevertheless full of forbearance
khanti toward s the many failings of
beings. 7: Once they have promised to give or do something, they do not break
their promise 'truthfulness'; sacca 8:
With unshakable resolution adhitthāna
they work for the weal and welfare of beings. 9: With unshakable kindness
mettā they are helpful to all. 10: By
reason of their equanimity upekkhā
they do not expect anything in return; Vis.M
In the Mahāyana scriptures, where the pāramī occupy a much more prominent
place, a partly differing list of six is given: generosity, morality, patience,
energy, meditation. and understanding.
Literature: Ten Jātaka Stories illustrating the 10 pāramī by I.
B. Horner London 1957, Luzac & Co.; Buddhavamsa & Cariyapitaka. tr. by I.
B. Horner Minor Anthologies III, Sacred Books of the Buddhists.
PTS. - Narada Thera, The Buddha & His
Teachings, Ch. 41; Parami BPS -
The treatise on the perfections from the
Com. to Cariyapitaka has been translated
in The Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of Views Brahmajala Sutta, with
Com.. tr. by Bhikkhu Bodhi
'divine beings with power over the productions of others', constitute a
class of divine beings in the sense-sphere
kāma-loka. Māra is said to be their ruler. Cf.loka
Parassa ceto-pariya-ñāna: 'penetration
of the mind of others', is one of the higher powers
kasina' = space kasina; see: kasina
Parihāna-dhamma: 'liable to decline'.;Now,
someone reaches the attainments absorptions:
jhāna of the fine-material or immaterial sphere see:
avacara But he does not reach them
according to his wish, and not without trouble and exertion; and not according
to his wish with regard to place, object and duration, does he enter them,
or rise therefrom. Therefore it is well possible that such a monk, through
negligence, may lose these attainments. Such a person is said to be liable
to decline; Pug. 5.
Parikamma-nimitta: 'preparatory image';
Parikamma-samādhi: 'preparatory concentration',
is the initial and still undeveloped concentration of mind; see:
Parinibbāna: 'full Nibbāna', is a synonym
for Nibbāna; this term, therefore, does not refer exclusively to the ceasing
of the 5 groups of existence at the death of the Noble One, though often applied
to it. Cf. nibbāna
Pariññā: 'full understanding', full comprehension.
There are 3 kinds of mundane f.u. lokiya-p namely: full understanding of the known ñāta-p f.u.
as investigating tīrana-p and f.u. as overcoming
Vis.M XX, 3 it is said:
Full understanding of the known is the knowledge consisting in the discernment
of the specific characteristics of such and such phenomena, as: 'Materiality
has the characteristic of being oppressed; feeling has the characteristic of
being felt, etc.'
Full understanding by investigating is that insight-understanding
vipassanā which has the 3 general characteristics
impermanence, suffering, no-self as its objects,
and which arises when attributing a general characteristic to physical and
mental phenomena, as for instance: 'Materiality is impermanent, feeling is
Full understanding by overcorning is that insight-understanding which has the above
mentioned general characteristics as its objects, and arises after overcoming
the idea of permanence, etc.; - App..
Pārisuddhi-padhāniyanga: the 4
'elements of the effort for purity', are: effort for purity of morality
for purity of mind citta of view
ditthi of deliverance
A. IV, 194. - Another 9 factors are enumerated
in D. 34, namely the 7 'stages of purification
see: visuddhi and the effort for
purity of higher knowledge vijjā-p. p
and of deliverance vimutti-p. p..
Pārisuddhi-sīla: 'morality consisting
in purity', is fourfold: restraint with regard to the Bhikkhus' Disciplinary
Code, sense restraint, purity of livelihood, morality with regard to the Bhikkhus'
4 requisites; for details, see: sīla
paritta-subha: are 2 classes of divine beings of the fine-material
sphere; see: deva II.
Pariyatti: 'learning the doctrine', the 'wording
of the doctrine'. In the 'progress of the disciple', 3 stages may be distinguished:
theory, practice, realization, i.e. 1 learning the wording of the doctrine
pariyatti 2 practising it
patipatti 3 penetrating it
pativedha and realising its goal.
Pasāda-rūpa: 'sensitive materiality', is a
name for the 5 physical sense-organs responding to sense-stimuli. Cf.
'tranquillity, as link to Awakening', consists in tranquillity of mental
kāya-passaddhi and tranquillity
of consciousness citta-passaddhi
Cf. bojjhanga further
Patched-up robes: the practice of wearing:
is one of the ascetic rules of purification
the knowledge and vision regarding: see:
Pathavī-dhātu: 'earth-element' or 'solid
element'. It is cognizable through the sensations of pressure, touch, cold,
heat. pain, etc. - About the 4 elements. see: dhātu, khandha I.
Pathavī-kasina: 'earth-kasina' see:
magga-paccaya is one of the 24
path-knowledge: the 4 kinds of: see:
Patibhāna-patisambhidā: the 'analytical
knowledge of ready wit': see: patisambhidā
Paticcasamuppāda: 'dependent origination',
is the doctrine of the conditionality of all physical and psychical phenomena,
a doctrine which, together with that of impersonality
anattā, forms the indispensable condition
for the real understanding and realization of the teaching of the Buddha. It
shows the conditionality and dependent nature of that uninterrupted flux of
many physical and psychical phenomena of existence conventionally called the
ego, or man, or animal, etc.
Whereas the doctrine of impersonality, or
anattā proceeds analytically, by splitting
existence up into the ultimate constituent parts, into mere empty, unsubstantial
phenomena or elements, the doctrine of dependent origination, on the other
hand, proceeds synthetically, by showing that all these phenomena are, in some
way or other, conditionally related with each other. In fact, the entire Abhidhamma
Pitaka, as a whole, treats really of nothing but just these two doctrines:
phenomenality - implying impersonality and
conditionality of all existence. The former or analytical method is applied
in Dhammasangani, the first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka; the latter or synthetical
method, in Patthāna, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. For a synopsis
of these two works, see: Guide I and
Though this subject has been very frequently treated by Western authors,
by far most of them have completely misunderstood the true meaning and purpose
of the doctrine of dependent origination, and even the 12 terms themselves
have often been rendered wrongly.
The formula of dependent origination runs as follows:
1. avijiā-paccayā sankhārā Through ignorance are conditioned
the sankhāras,; i.e. the rebirth-producing intentions
cetanā or 'kammic-constructions'.
viññānam Through the kammic-constructions in the past life is conditioned
consciousness in the present life
3. viññāna-paccayā nāma-rūpam
Through consciousness are conditioned the mental and physical phenomena
nāma-rūpa i.e. that which makes
up our so-called individual existence.
salāyatanam Through the mental and physical phenomena are conditioned
the 6 bases,; i.e. the 5 physical sense-organs, and consciousness as the sixth.
phasso Through the six sense sources is conditioned the sensorial mental contact
vedanā Through the contact is conditioned
tanhā Through feeling is conditioned craving
8. tanhā-paccayā upādānam
Through craving is conditioned clinging
9. upādāna-paccayā bhavo
Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming,; consisting in the
active and the passive life process, i.e. the rebirth-producing kamma-making
kamma-bhava and, as its result,
the rebirth-process upapatti-bhava.
10. Bhava-paccayā jāti Through the rebirth-producing kamma-process
of becoming is conditioned rebirth
11. jāti-paccayā jarāmaranam
etc.:;Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death sorrow, lamentation,
pain, grief and despair. Thus arises this whole mass of suffering again in
The following diagram shows the relationship of dependence between three
2. kammic-constructions sankhārā
5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10
4. Mind & Matter
5. six sense sources
5 results: 3-7
10. Process of Becoming
5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10
12. Old Age and Death
5 results: 3-7
Before taking up the study of the following exposition, it is suggested
that the reader first goes thoroughly through the article on the 24 conditions
see: paccaya For a thorough understanding
of the paticcasamuppāda he
should know the main modes of conditioning, as decisive support, co-nascence,
For a closer study of the subject should be consulted:
Guide Ch. VII and Appendix; Dependent
Origination, by Piyadassi Thera WHEEL
15; The Significance of Dependent Origination
1: Through ignorance are conditioned the kammic-constructions; avijjā-paccayā
sankhārā i.e. all advantageous and disadvantageous actions kamma of body,
speech and mind, are conditioned through ignorance. By 'kammic-constructions'
are meant kammically advantageous and disadvantageous intentions
cetanā or intentional activities, in short
kamma, and Fund. II.
In view of the many misconceptions current in the West, it is necessary
to repeat here that kamma, as a technical term, never signifies anything but
moral or immoral action, i.e. the above mentioned intentional activities, or
kammic-constructions, as either causing results in the present life or being
the causes of future destiny and rebirth. Thus kamma, as a philosophical term,
never means the result of action, as often wrongly conceived by Western authors.
Now, in what way are the kammic-constructions conditioned through ignorance?
As concerns the disadvantageous kammaconstructions associated with greed, hate
or confusion lobha, dosa, moha these are always and in all circumstances,
conditioned through the simultaneous ignorance inseparably associated therewith.
Thus, ignorance is for the disadvantageous kammic-constructions a condition
by way of conascence sahajāta-paccaya
presence atthi-paccaya etc.
Ignorance further may be for them a condition by way of decisive support or
if, for instance, ignorance coupled with greed induces a man to commit evil
deeds, such as killing, stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, etc. In these
cases, therefore, ignorance is a 'natural decisive suppport' or 'direct inducement'
It also may become an indirect inducement, by way of object ārammanūpanissaya-paccaya
of our thinking. This takes place, if, for example, someone remembers a former
state of ignorance combined with sensual enjoyment, and in doing so kammically
disadvantageous states spring up, such as sensual desire, grief, etc.
For the advantageous kusala kammic-constructions,
ignorance can only be a condition by way of decisive support upanissaya
never by way of co-nascence sahajāta etc., since advantageous consciousness
at that very moment, of course, cannot be associated with any disadvantageous
phenomenon, such as ignorance. Ignorance is a 'natural decisive support' or
'direct inducement' pakatupanissaya for example, if, induced by ignorance
and vanity, one exerts oneself to attain the absorptions, and thus finally,
through perseverance, reaches these advantageous states of mind. Ignorance
may also be for advantageous kammic-constructions a 'decisive support' or 'inducement
by way of object' ārammanūpanissaya if, for example, one refleets on
ignorance as the root of all misery in the
world, and thus finally attains insight and entrance into one of the 4 supra-mundane
paths of Nobility.
For ignorance, see: avijjā for kammic-constructions,
2.;Through the kammic-constructions is conditioned consciousness; sankhāra-paccayā
viññānam This proposition teaches that the advantageous and disadvantageous
kammic-constructions are the causes of future rebirth in an appropriate sphere
gati The kammic-constructions of the previous
life condition the budding in a new mother's womb of a fresh psycho-physical
aggregation of the 5 groups of existence see:
khandha which here are represented by consciousness
viññāna All such kamma-resultant
vipāka consciousness, however, such
as visual-consciousness seeing, etc., as well as all the mental phenomena associated
therewith feeling, etc., are kammically neutral. It should be understood that
already from the very first moment of conception in the mother's womb, this
kamma resultant eonsciousness of the embryonic being is functioning.
Against Dr. Paul Dahlke's misconception of the
paticcasamuppāda as;one single
kammical moment of personal experience,; and of the 'simultaneity' of all the
12 links of this formula, I should like to state here distinctly that the interpretation
of the p. given here as comprising 3 successive lives not only agrees
with all the different schools of Buddhism and all the ancient commentaries,
but also is fully identical with the explanations given already in the canonical
suttas. Thus, for example, it is said verbatim in Nidāna-Samyutta
S. XII, 51:;Once ignorance 1 and clinging
9 are extinguished, neither kammically meritorious, nor disadvantageous, nor
imperturbable kammic-constructions 2=10 are produced, and thus no consciousness
3=11 will spring up again in a new mother's womb.; And further:;For, if consciousness
were not to appear in the mother's womb, would in that case mentality and materiality
4 arise?; Cf. above diagram.
The purpose of the Buddha in teaching the p. was to show to suffering
mankind how, depending on ignorance and confusion, this present existence and
suffering has come about, and how through ceasing of ignorance, and of the
craving and clinging conditioned thereby, no more rebirth will follow, and
thus the standstill of the process of existence will have been realized and
therewith the ceasing of all suffering.
3.;Through consciousness are conditioned materiality and mentality; viññāna-paccayā
nāma-rūpani This proposition implies that without consciousness there ean
be no mental and physical process of existence. By mentality nāma is
here to be understood the kamma-resultant
vipāka mental phenomena, such as feeling
cetanā non-kammical intention is here meant,
consciousness-contact phassa directing
S. XII, 2. For the basic 7 mental phenomena inseparably associated with
every state of consciousness, see: nāma By materiality
rūpa is meant the 4 physical elements
see: dhātu and the materiality dependent
thereon see: khandha I.
Mentality is always conditioned through consciousness; i.e. consciousness
viññāna is for mentality nāma
a condition by way of conascence sahajāta mutuality aññamañña
association sampayutta etc., since the 4 mental groups at all times
form an inseparable unit.
Consciousness viññāna is for materiality
rūpa a condition by way of co-nascence
only at the moment of conception, thereafter a condition by way of post-nascence
paccaya11 and nutriment
āhāra i.e. as a support. Just as the repeatedly arising hunger is
a condition and support for the pre-arisen body, so is the conseiousness arising
afterwards a condition and support for the maintenance of this pre-arisen body.
4.;Through mentality and materiality are conditioned the 6 bases nāma-rūpa
paccayā salāyatanam The 6 bases are a name for the 5 physical sense-organs
and, as 6th, the mind-base manāyatana, i.e. consciousness.
Mentality nāma see: 3 is for the 5 physical bases
āyatana or sense-organs, a condition
by way of post-nascence. Cf. end of 3.
Mentality nāma i.e. feeling. etc., is for the 6th base, or consciousness
- as being always inseparably associated therewith a condition by way of co-nascencc.
Materiality rūpa here the 4 elements,
are for the 5 physical bases āyatana
or sense-organs, a condition by way of support
Materiality rūpa here the 5 physical
sense-organs, are for the 6th base āyatana,
i.e. consciousness, a condition by way of support and pre-nascence
5.;Through the 6 bases is conditioned the sensorial and mental contact;
for without the 5 physical bases, or sense-organs, there can be no sense-contacts;
and without the 6th base, or consciousness, there can be no mental contact.
Thus, the 5 physical bases, eye, etc., are for the corresponding 5 sense-contacts
visual contact, etc. a condition by way of support
nissaya and pre-nascence purejāta
whereas the 6th, the mind-base consciousness, is for the mental contact
a condition by way of co-nascence, association, mutuality, etc.
6.;Through contact is conditioned feeling; phassa-paccayā vedanā
i.e. the sensorial and the mental contacts are for the feeling associated
therewith a condition by way of co-nascence, association, mutuality, etc.
7.;Through feeling is conditioned craving;
tanhā Any kamma-resultant feeling, whether
pleasant, painful or neutral, bodily or mental, past or expected, may
become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of object ārammanūpanissaya
Even physically and mentally painful feeling may, through the desire to be
released therefrom, become for craving a condition of decisive support by way
of object ārammanupanissaya.
8.;Through craving is conditioned clinging; tanhā-paccayā upādānam
'Clinging' is explained as an intensified form of craving. It is of 4 kinds:
1 clinging to sensuality, 2 to erroneous views, 3 to rules and ritual, 4 to
personality-belief. sense-craving is to 1 a condition of natural decisive support
pakatupanissaya. For 2-4, craving is a condition by way of co-nascence,
mutuality, root hetu etc. It also may
be a condition of natural decisive support. For example, through craving for
divine rebirth, etc. people often may be induced to cling to certain rules
and rituals, with the hope of reaching thereby the object of their desires.
9.;Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming; upādāna-paccayā
bhavo i.e. the advantageous and disadvantageous active kamma-making of
becoming kamma-bhava, as well as the kamma-resultant
vipāka passive process, the so-called
The kamma-making kammabhava comprises the 5 kammical causes: ignorance,
kammic-constructions, craving, clinging, kamma-making see: 1, 2, 8, 9, 10,
of the diagram; the rebirth-process
upapatti-bhava comprises the 5 kamma-results see: 3-7 of the diagram.
The kamma-making is here, correctly speaking, a collective name for generative
kammic intention kamma-cetanā
and all the mental phenomena associated therewith, whilst the 2nd link kammic-constructions
designates only kammic intention see: āyūhana
Both, however, i.e. the 2nd and 10th proposition, practically state one and
the same thing, namely, that kamma is the cause of rebirth, as we shall see
Clinging upādāna may be an inducement
of decisive support upanissaya to many kinds of advantageous and disadvantageous
kamma. sense-clinging kāmūpādāna i.e. clinging to sense-objects, for
example, may be a direct inducement to murder, theft, unlawful intercourse
with the other sex, evil words and thoughts, etc. Clinging to rules and ritual
sīlabbatūpādāna may lead to self-complacency, fanaticism, cruelty, etc.
Clinging is also for the evil kamma associated therewith, a condition by way
of co-nascence, association, etc.
10.;Through the process of becoming is conditioned rebirth; bhava-paccayā
jāti i.e. through the advantageous and disadvantageous kamma-making
kamma-bhava is conditioned the
The 2nd and 10th propositions, as already pointed out, practically teach one
and the same thing, namely, that kamma is the cause of rebirth; in other words,
that the kammical intention cetanā is
the seed out of which springs the new life, just as from the mango-seed is
generated the new mango-tree.
Hence, the 5 kammical causes ignorance, etc. of the past birth are the condition
for the kamma-results of the present birth; and the 5 kammical causes of the
present birth are the condition for the 5 kamma-results of the next birth see:
diagram. As it is said in Vis.M XVII:
Five causes were there in the past,
Five fruits we find in present life;
Five causes do we now produce,
Five fruits we reap in future life
Now, just as in this process of continually changing mental and bodily phenomena,
nothing can be found that would pass from one moment to the next moment, so
also there is no enduring entity, ego, or personality, within this process
of existence that would transmigrate from one life to the next see:
khandha No being and no living soul
passed from the former life to this life, and yet this present embryo could
not have entered into existence without the preceding causes;
Vis.M XVII.;Many things may serve to illustrate
this fact, as for example the echo, the light of a lamp, the contact of
a seal, or the image produced by a mirror; ib..
Whosoever is in the dark with regard to the conditionally arisen things,
and does not understand that kamma originates from ignorance, etc., he thinks
that it must be his ego that knows or does not know, acts and causes to act,
and that arises at rebirth. Or he thinks that the atoms, or a creator, with
the help of this embryonic process, must have formed this body, or that it
is the ego endowed with abilities that has contacts, feels, desires, clings,
continues and enters again into existence in a new birth. Or he thinks that
all beings have been born through fate, or fortuitously;
Now, on hearing that Buddhism teaches that everything whatever in the world
is determined by conditions some might come to the conclusion that Buddhism
teaches some sort of fatalism, and that man has no free will, or that will
is not free.
The problem 'whether man has a free will' does not exist for, the Buddhist,
since he knows that, apart from these everchanging mental and physical phenomena,
no such entity as 'man' can be found, and that 'man' is merely a name not relating
to any reality. And the question, 'whether will is free', must be rejected
for the reason that 'will', or intention, is a mental phenomenon flashing forth
only for a moment, and that as such it had not any existence at the preceding
moment. For of a thing which is not, or is not yet, one cannot, properly speaking,
ask whether it is free or unfree. The only admissible question would be whether
the arising of 'will' is independent of conditions, or whether it is conditioned.
But the same question would equally apply also to all the other mental phenomena,
as well as to all physical phenomena, in other words: to everything and every
occurrence whatever. And the answer would be: whether will arises, or whether
feeling arises, or whether any other mental or any physical phenomenon arises,
the arising of anything whatsoever is dependent on conditions, and without
conditions nothing ever can arise or enter into existence.
According to Buddhism, everything mental or physical happens in accordance
with laws and conditions; and if it were otherwise, chaos and blind chance
would reign. But such a thing is impossible and contradicts all laws of thinking.
Cf. Fund. III end.
11.;Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death; jātipaccayā jarā-maranam
Without birth there can be no old age and death, no suffering and
misery. Thus rebirth is to old age and death,
etc. a condition by way of decisive support upanissaya.
The Buddha has said D. 15:;Profound,
Ananda. is this dependent origination, and profound does it appear. It is through
not understanding, not penetrating, this law that this world resembles a tangled
ball of thread, a bird's nest, a thicket of sedge or reed, and that man does
not escape from the lower states of existence, from the course of woe and perdition,
suffering from the round of rebirth.; And further
M. 28: 'Whoso understands the dependent
origination understands the Dhamma; and whoso understands the Dhamma understands
the dependent origination.
Patience: or forbearance
khanti one of the 10 perfections
Patigha: - 1. In an ethical sense, it means: 'repugnance',
grudge, resentment, anger, and is a synonym of
vyāpāda, ill-will' see: nīvarana
and dosa 'hate' see:
mūla It is one of the latent tendencies
2. 'Sense-reaction'. Applied to five-sense cognition, p.: occurs
in the following contexts:
a as patigha-saññā
'perception of sense-reaction', said to be absent in the immaterial absorptions
see: jhāna 5. Alternative renderings:
b as patigha-samphassa
'mental contact caused by 5fold sensorial reaction'
D. 15; see:
c as sappatigha-rūpa 'reacting
materiality', and appatigha 'not reacting', which is an Abhidhammic
classification of materiality, occurring in
Dhs. 659, 1050. sappatigha are called the physical sense-organs
as reacting or responding to sense stimuli; and also the physical sense-objects
as impinging or making an impact on the sense-organs. All other materiality
is appatigha non-reacting and non-impinging. These 2 terms have been
variously rendered as resistant and not, responding and not, with and without
Pātihāriya: 'miracle', marvel. Three
marvels are ascribed to the Buddha: the marvel of magic
iddhi-p the marvel of mind-reading
ādesanā-p and the marvel of instruction anusāsanī-p
In D. 11, the Buddha says that he sees
danger in the first two and therefore abhors them. In
A. III, 61, the 'marvel of instruction' is
called the one 'more noble and sublime'. For iddhi-pātihāriya, see
D. 25. See also yamakapātihāriya.
Patikkūla-saññā: s. kāyagatā-sati
Pātimokkha: 'Disciplinary Code', is the name
of the code of monk's rules, which on all full-moon and new moon days is recited
before the assembled community of fully ordained Bhikkhus
See The Patimokkha, Romanized Pāli text and transl. by ñānamoli Thera
Bangkok 1966, Mahāmakut Buddhist Bookshop.
consisting in restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code'
pātimokkha see: prec.. For details,
on relinquishment', is one of the 18 kinds of insight
vipassanā. Further cf. the 16th exercise
Patipadā: 1. 'Road', 'Path';
for instance in dukkhanirodha-gāminī-patipadā
'the road leading to the ceasing of suffering' = 4th Noble Truth; majjhima-patipadā
'the Middle Way'.
2. 'Progress' see also the foll. article. There are 4 modes of progress
to deliverance: 1 painful progress with slow comprehension dukkhā patipadā
dandhābhiññā 2 painful progress with quick comprehension, 3 pleasant progress
with slow comprehension, 4 pleasant progress with quick comprehension. In
A. IV, 162 it is said:
1: Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, excessive hate, excessive
confusion, and thereby he often feels pain and sorrow; and also the 5 mental
abilities, as faith, energy, awareness or mindfulness, concentration and
see: indriya 15-19 are dull in him;
and by reason thereof he reaches only slowly the immediacy
ānantariya q.v to the cessation
of all fermentations.
2: Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, etc., but the 5 mental
abilities are sharp in him and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the immediacy
to the cessation of all fermentations.
3;Some person possesses by nature no excessive greed, etc., but the 5 mental
abilities are dull in him, and by reason thereof he reaches slowly the immediacy
to the cessation of all fermentations.
4 'Some person possessess by nature no excessive greed, etc., and the mental
abilities are sharp in him, and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the immediacy
to the cessation of all fermentations.
See A. IV, 162, 163, 166-169;
Atthasālini Tr. I, 243; 11, 291,
'purification by knowledge and vision of the
path-progress' forms the 6th stage of purification
is he who had reached one of the 4 supra-mundane
paths of Nobility see: ariya-puggala
Patipatti: practice, or 'pursuance' of the teaching,
as distinguished from the mere theoretical knowledge of its wording
of defilements by tranquillization' see: pahāna.
Patisambhidā: 'analytical knowledge' or 'discrimination',
is of 4 kinds: analytical knowledge of the true meaning
attha-patisambhidā of the
of language nirutti-patisambhidā
of ready wit patibhāna-patisambhidā.
As an alternative rendering of the fourth term patibhāna Bhikkhu
ñānamoli proposes: perspicuity in expression and knowledge.
1. The analytical knowledge of the meaning attha-p is the
knowledge with regard to the sense.
2. The analytical knowledge of the law dhamma-p is the knowledge with regard to the law.
3. The analytical knowledge of language nirutti-p is the
knowledge of the language with regard to those former 2 things.
4. The analytical knowledge of ready-wit patibhāna-p is the
knowledge about the former 3 kinds of knowledge;
1 attha Sanskrit artha, to reach; result, meaning, purpose,
essence: designates, in short, the fruit
phala of a cause hetu for since
the fruit of a cause results from adhering to the cause, and is reached and
effected thereby, therefore it is called result attha In particular,
however, 5 things are considered as attha namely: everything dependent
on conditions, Nibbāna, the meaning of words, kamma-result, and functional
consciousness. When anyone reflects on that meaning any knowledge of his, falling
within the category concerned with meaning or result, is the 'analytical knowledge'
2 dhamma Sanskrit dharma
Ö dhar to bear; bearer, condition, law, phenomenon,
thing is, in short, a name for condition paccaya...
In particular, however, 5 things are considered as
dhamma namely: every cause
hetu producing a result, the noble
path, the spoken word, the kammically advantageous,
the kammically disadvantageous. When anyone reflects on that law, any knowledge
of his, falling within the category concerned with law or cause, is the 'analytical
knowledge' of the law.
In Vibh. it is further said: 'The
knowledge of suffering is the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning
knowledge of its origin is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law
The knowledge of the cause is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law
the knowledge of the result of the cause is the 'analytical knowledge' of the
true meaning attha-patisambhidā..
That the Bhikkhu knows the law, the sunas etc. this is called the 'analytical
knowledge' of the law dhamma-patisambhidā
if however, he understands the meaning of this or that speech... it is called
the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning attha-patisambhidā.'
3'The knowledge of the language concerning those things' means: the
language corresponding to reality, and the unfailing mode of expression concerning
the true meaning and the law.
4'Knowledge about the kinds of knowledges' is that knowledge which has all
knowledges as object and considers them. Or, the analytical knowledge of ready
means the knowledge of the above mentioned 3 kinds of knowledge, in all their
details, with their objects, functions, etc.;
On the 7 qualities leading to the attainment of the 4 'analytical knowledge',
see: A. VII, 37 - See
Vis.M XIV, 21ff;
Pts.M. Patisambhidā Kathā.
Patisandhi: lit. 'reunion, relinking', i.e.
rebirth, is one of the 14 functions of consciousness
viññāna-kicca. It is a kamma-resultant
type of consciousness and arises at the moment of conception i.e. with the
forming of new life in the mother's womb. Immediately afterwards it sinks into
the subconscious stream of existence
bhavanga-sota, and conditioned thereby ever and ever again corresponding
states of subconsciousness arise. Thus it is really rebirth-consciousness that
determines the latent character of a person.
Neither has this rebirth-consciousness transmigrated from the previous
existence to this present existence, nor did it arise without such conditions,
as kamma, kammic-constructions, propensity, object, etc. That this consciousness
has not come from the previous existence to this present existence, yet that
it has come into existence by means of conditions included in the previous
existence, such as kamma, etc., this fact may be illustrated by various things,
such as the echo, the light of a lamp, the contact of a seal, or the image
produced by a mirror. For just as the resounding of the echo is conditioned
by a sound, etc., and nowhere a transmigration of sound has taken place, just
so it is with this consciousness. Further it is said: 'In this continuous process,
no sameness and no otherness can be found.' For if there were full identity
between the different stages, then also milk never could turn into curd. And
if there were a complete otherness, then curd could never come from milk. If
in a continuity of existence any kamma-result takes place, then this kamma-result
neither belongs to any other being, nor does it come from any other kamma,
because absolute sameness and otherness are excluded here; Vis, XVII 164ff.
In Mil. it is said:
Now, Venerable Nāgasena, the one who is reborn, is he the same as the one
who has died, or is he another?
Neither the same, nor another; na ca so na
Give me an example.
What do you think, o King: are you now, as a grown-up person, the same that
you had been as a little, young and tender babe?
No, Venerable Sir. Another person was the little, young and tender babe,
but quite a different person am I now as a grown-up man.;...
... Is perhaps in the first watch of the night one lamp burning, another
one in the middle watch, and again another one in the last watch?
No, Venerable Sir. The light during the whole night depends on one and the
Just so, o King, is the chain of phenomena linked together. One phenomenon
arises, another vanishes, yet all are linked together, one after the other,
without interruption. In this way one reaches the final state of consciousnes
neither as the same person. nor as another person.''
According to the nature of their rebirth consciousness, beings divide into
the following 3 groups:
a 'being reborn without rootconditions', is a being whose consciousness at
the moment of rebirth was not accompanied by any of the 3 noble rootconditions,
viz. greedlessness, hatelessness, unconfusedness see:
mūla i.e. selflessness, kindness, intelligence.
Such beings are found in the 4 lower worlds
apāya,, in which case the function of rebirth is exercised by the
class of consciousness listed in Tab. I as No. 56.
But if such beings are born in the sense-sphere as humans, they will be crippled,
blind, deaf, mentally deficient, etc. Rebirth-consciousness =
Tab. I, No. 41
2. dvihetu or duhetu-patisandhika a 'being reborn
with only 2 noble root-conditions', i.e. greedlessness and hatelessness. Rebirth-consciousness
= Tab. I, Nos. 44, 45, 48 or 49.
3. tihetu-patisandhika a 'being reborn with 3 noble rootconditions'.
Such a being can be found only among men. Rebirth-consciousness =
Tab. 1, Nos. 42, 43, 46, or 47 and higher
On these 3 types of rebirth, See
Atthasālini Tr. 11, 354 - 379.
In the suttas, the terms for rebirth are chiefly
punabbhava, 'renewed existence',
and abhinibbatti 'arising'; or
both combined as punabbhavābhinibbatti -
Literature Vis.M XVII, 133f, 164f,
189f, 289f; Vis.M XIX, 22f. - Kamma
and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka Thera WHEEL
9. - The Case for Rebirth, by Francis Story
12/13. - Survival and Kamma
in Buddhist Perspective, by K. N. Jayatilleke
141/143. - Rebirth Explained,
by V. F. Gunaratna WHEEL
Bhāvanā-bala: 'power of reflection', and 'power
of mental development'. About these 2 powers it is said in
A. II, 10:
What, o Bhikkhus, is the power of reflection? If, o Bhikkhus, someone thinks
thus: 'Bad conduct in deeds, words and thoughts verily bears bad fruits both
in this life, as well as in the next life', and in consequence of this consideration,
he abandons bad conduct in deeds, words and thoughts, follows good conduct,
and keeps his mind pure, this, o Bhikkhus, is the power of reflection.
What, o Bhikkhus, is the power of mental development? If, o Bhikkhus, a
Bhikkhu develops the factors of enlightenment
bojjhanga, bent on solitude, on detachment,
on ceasing, and ending in deliverance, namely: awareness or mindfulness, investigating
of the law, energy, rapture, tranquillity, concentration, and equanimity, this,
o Bhikkhus, is the power of mental development.
consisting in reflective contemplation;; is one of the 9 knowledges constituting
the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the
see: visuddhi VI, and one of the 18
chief kinds of insight mahāvipassanā see:
Pativedha: 'penetration', signifies the realization
of the truth of the Dhamma, as distinguished from the mere acquisition of its
wording pariyatti or the practice
patipatti of it, in other words,
realization as distinguished from theory and practice. Cf.
Patta-pindik'anga: the 'exercise of
the bowl-eater', is one of the 13 ascetic purification-exercises
dhutānga, consisting in the vow of
using only the food-bowl for eating, and the rejection of any other vessel.
Patti-dāna: lit. 'giving of the acquired',
i.e. 'transference of merit.' Though in the older texts very seldom mentioned
e.g. A VII, 50, it is, however, a widespread custom in all Buddhist countries.
It is presumed that moral merit, especially that acquired through giving food,
can be transferred to others, apparently for the reason that one's own good
actions may become to others, especially to departed relatives and friends
reborn in the ghost realm, an inducement to a happy and morally advantageous
state of mind. Transference of merit is advocated though without mentioning
the term patti-dāna in the Tirokudda
Sutta Khp. and Petavatthu and its
Khp. Tr.. It is one of the ten 'bases
of meritorious action' puññakiriyavatthu, called there pattānuppadāna
See 'The Doctrine of Reversible Merit by F. L. Woodward. Buddhist Review
London, Vol. I 1914, p. 38.
pariyatti- For the power of penetrating
vipphāra knowledge and concentration, see:
iddhi- For morality combined with penetration
nibbedha see: hāna-bhāgiya-sīla
etc. - For penetration pariya of the mind of others, see:
Perfections: the 10: pāramī
Perfect one: the:
Performance: and avoidance: cāritta-vāritta
Permanency: idea of: see:
sakkāya For personality-belief, see:
sakkāya ditthi, ditthi, attā, satta, puggala, vipallāsa.
Perversions: the 4:
Peta: Sanskrit preta lit. 'departed spirit',
ghost; see: loka
Petti-visaya: 'ghost realm'; see:
Phala: lit. 'fruit'. - 1. result, effect often together
with hetu cause; 2. benefit e.g. in Sāmañña-phala
Sutta, 'The Results, or Benefits, of Recluseship';
As 'path-result', or 'fruition', it donotes
those moments of supra-mundane consciousness which flash forth immediately
after the moment of path-consciousness see:
ariya-puggala and which, till
the attainment of the next higher path, may
during the practice of insight vipassanā
still recur innumerable times. If thus repeated, they are called the 'attainment
of fruition phalasamāpatti which is explained in detail in
Phassa: fr. phusati to touch: 'sense-contact',
contact. The term samphassa is used
in compounds, e.g. in the following: ';T'here are 6 classes of sense-contact:
visual contact cakkhu-samphassa
contacts of hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily tactile contact and mental
contact; M. 9. A twofold division occurs
in D. 15:
samphassa contact by sensorial
reaction', and adhivacana-samphassa
verbal or conceptual, i.e. mental contact'.
phassa does not signify physical
impact, but is one of the 7 constant mental properties of consciousness
cetasika and belongs to the group
of mental constructions sankhāra-khandha
In lists of both these categories it is generally mentioned first e.g.
M. 9, due to its fundamental position in
the cognitive process In M. 18 it is
thus defined:;Dependent on the eye and the forms, visual-consciousness arises;
the coming-together of the three is sense-contact; similarly stated in the
case of the other 5 senses, including mind. In the dependent origination, it
is conditioned by the six sense-sources and is a conditioning factor of feeling
6. Its relation to mind-and-body nāma-rūpa
is described in D. 15, and its influence
on feeling and wrong views, in D. 1
at the end. - It is one of the 4 nutriments
āhāra, and the first factor in the pentad of sense-contact
phassa-pañcamaka together with
feeling, perception, intention and consciousness see
Abh. St., p. 47ff.
Being a key function in the mind's contact with the world of objects and
being a potential source of defilements, sense-contact is an important subject
for reflective insight contemplation as succinctly formulated in many verses
of the Sn.: 736/7, 778, 851, 870/72, 923.
Picked-up rags: wearing robes
made from: see: dhutānga.
Pindapātik'anga: The 'practice of going
for food', is one of the 13 ascetic purification-exercises see:
is one of the kasina-exercises; see: kasina
Pīti: rapture, enthusiasm rendered also by joy, happiness;
interest it is one of the mental properties or properties
cetasika and belongs to the group
of mental constructions sankhāra-khandha
As, in sutta texts, it is often linked in a compound word. with 'gladness'
pāmojja or 'happiness' sukha some
Western translations have wrongly taken it as a synonym of these two terms.
Pīti, however, is not a feeling or a sensation, and hence does not belong to
the feeling-group vedanā-khandha,
but may be described psychologically as 'joyful interest'. As such it may be
associated with advantageous as well as with disadvantageous and neutral states
A high degree of rapture is characteristic of certain stages in meditative
concentration, in insight practice vipassanā
as well as in the first two absorptions jhāna.
In the latter it appears as one of the factors of absorption
jhāna and is strongest in the 2nd absorption.
Five degrees of intensity in meditative rapture are described in
Vis.M IV. 94ff. It is one of the factors
of enlightenment bojjhanga.
Planes of existence: the 3: see:
Pleasantness: idea of: see:
Pondering: s. vīmamsā.
pacchājāta-paccaya one of
the 24 conditions paccaya.
Postures: the 4 bodily: iriyāpatha
Powers: the 5 spiritual: see:
bala- For the 6 higher p., see:
abhiññna For the 10 p. of a Buddha, see:
dasabala- For the 4 roads to p.,
see: iddhipāda. For magical p., see:
Practice: For theory, practice and realization,
Predominance: and pre-nascence: adhipati,
purejāta, are 2 of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Preparatory concentration: and
preparatory image, etc.: see: samādhi
Prescribed moral rules: paññatti-sīla
Latent tendencies: s.
Productive: or regenerative kamma: s.
Proficiency: of mental properties and consciousness:
Progress: s. patipadā, abhabbagamana - p.
in morality, etc., see: hānabhāgiya etc. - Purification by knowledge
and vision of path-progress, see:
visuddhi VI. - p. : of the
disciple, see: foll.
Progress of the disciple: Gradual
development of the 8-fold path in the: In
many suttas occurs an identical passage that outlines the gradual course of
development in the progress of the disciple. There it is shown how this development
takes place gradually, and in conformity with laws, from the very first hearing
of the doctrine, and from germinating faith and dim comprehension, up to the
final realization of deliverance.
After hearing the law, he is filled with confidence, and he thinks: 'Full
of hindrances is household life, a refuse heap; but the homeless life of a
Bhikkhu is like the open air. Not easy is it, when one lives at home, to fulfill
in all points the rules of the Noble life. How if now I were to cut off hair
and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from home to the homeless life?'
And after a short time, having given up his possessions, great or little, having
forsaken a circle of relations, small or large, he cuts off hair and beard,
puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from home to the homeless life.
Having thus left the world, he fulfills the rules of the Bhikkhus. He avoids
the killing of living beings and abstains from it; without stick or sword,
conscientious, full of sympathy, he is desirous of the welfare of all living
beings. He avoids stealing... avoids unchastity... avoids lying... tale-bearing...
harsh language... vain talk.
He abstains from destroying vegetal germs and plants; eats only at one time
of the day; keeps aloof from dance, song, music and the visiting of shows;
rejects floral adornment, perfumes, ointment, as well as any other kind of
adornment and embellishment. High and gorgeous beds he does not use. Gold and
silver he does not accept... keeps aloof from buying and selling things.
He contents himself with the robe that protects his body, and with the food-bowl
with which he keeps himself alive. Wherever he goes, he is provided with these
two things, just as a winged bird in flying carries its wings along with him.
By fulfilling this noble domain of morality
sīla he feels in his heart an irreproachable happiness.
In what follows thereafter it is shown how the disciple watches over his
5 senses and his mind, and by this noble restraint of the senses
indriya-samvara feels in his
heart an unblemished happiness; how in all his actions he is ever mindful and
clearly conscious; and how, being equipped with this lofty morality
sīla and with this noble restraint of
the senses indriya-samvara
and with awareness or mindfulness and clear consciousness
sati-sampajañña he choses a
secluded dwelling, and freeing his mind from the 5 hindrances
nīvarana he reaches full concentration
samādhi,, and how thereafter, by developing
insight vipassanā with regard to
the impermanency anicca
anattā, of all phenomena of existence,
he finally realizes deliverance from all fermentations and defilements, and
thus the assurance arises in him:
For ever am I liberated,
This is the last time I am born,
No new existence waits for me.
Cf. D.1, 2f;
M. 27, 38, 51, 60, 76;
A. IV, 198; X, 99:
Pug. 239, etc.
Proximity: anantara is one
of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Pubbenivāsānussati: 'remembrance of
former births', is one of the higher powers
abhiññā, and a factor of threefold knowledge tevijja.
Puggala: 'individual', 'person', as well as the
synonyms: personality, individuality, being satta
self attā etc., in short all terms designating
a personal entity, hence also: I, you, he, man, god, etc., all these, according
to Buddhism, are mere names for certain combinations of material and mental
processes, and apart from them they have no real existence. They are to be
considered as mere 'conventional modes of expression' vohāra-vacana
and on that level they may be used, and are so used in the sutta texts, if
taken;without misapprehending them; see: quote from
D. 9 under
paramattha With such tacit reservations,
the term puggala occurs quite frequently
in the suttas.
In the ultimate sense paramattha,
however, there exist only ever-changing physical and mental phenomena, flashing
up and dying every moment. - Kath.,
in its first section, discusses the question whether;in the absolute sense,
any personality puggala can be
found; see: Guide, pp. 62ff. - See
Pūjā: 1 honour, respect, homage, 2 worship,
devotional observances, devotional offerings; also offerings to Bhikkhus.
1: The Mahā-mangala Sutta Sn. 259 says
that;Honour and respect towards those worthy of it, is conducive to great blessing;
pūjā ca pūjaniyesu etam mangalam uttamarn See
2: The Buddha did not think much of mere outer worship.;Not thus, Ananda,
is the Tathāgata respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped and honoured in
the highest degree. But, Ananda, whatsoever Bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni, lay man or
lay woman, abides by the Teaching, lives uprightly in the Teaching, walks in
the way of the Teaching, it is by him that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated,
esteemed, worshipped and honoured in the highest degree;
D. 16. -;There are two kinds of worship:
in a material way āmisa-pūjā
and through practice of the Dhamma dhamma-pūjā The worship through practice of
the Dhamma is the better of the two; A. II.
Punabbhava: lit.: re-becoming; 'renewed existence',
is a sutta term for 'rebirth', which, in later literature mostly is called
patisandhi The attainment of Sainthood
arahatta implying the end of future rebirths, is often expressed in
the words:;This is the last birth. Now there is no more a renewed existence!;
natthi dāni punabbhavo M.
26; D. 15;
Therag. 87, 339;
Sn. 502. - The term is often linked with
But how, o brother, does it come to renewed existence and arising in the
future āyatim punabbhavābhinibbatti? Because beings, obstructed
by ignorance and fettered by craving, find ever fresh delight now here, now
there, for this reason there is renewed existence and arising in the future;
M. 43. See also
abhinibbatti also stands sometimes
alone in signifying 'rebirth', e.g. in A.
VI, 61; X, 65.
Cf., in the 2nd Truth, the adj. ponobhavika 'leading to renewed existence'.
See A. III, 76;
Sn. 163, 273, 514, 733;
S. VII, 12; X, 3.
Puñña: merit, meritorious, is a popular
term for kammically advantageous kusala
action. Opposite terms: apuñña= demerit. pāpa= 'bad', 'evil'.
The value of meritorious action is often stressed, e.g., in the Treasure Store
Sutta see: Khp. Tr., Dhp 18, 118, 122.
- The Community of Noble Bhikkhus ariya-sangha
the third Refuge see: ti-sarana is
said to be;the incomparable field of merit in the world; anuttaram,
puññakkhettam see: anussati
3. The Arahats, however, having transcended all life-affirming and rebirth-producing
actions, are said to be;beyond merit and demerit;; see
Sn. 520, 547, 636, 790. - See foll. 3
kammic-constructions' of the sense-and fine-material sphere; see:
sankhāra I. 1.
Puññā-dhārā: 'streams of merit'. It is said
that one produces 4 streams of merit by offering the 4 requisites robes, foodfood,
dwelling, medicine to a Bhikkhu who has reached the conditionless deliverance
of mind; further by being filled with unshakable faith in the Buddha, his doctrine
and community of disciples, and by being perfect in morality
A. IV, 51, 52.
A. VIII, 39 describes 4 further streams of
Puñña-kiriya-vatthu: 'bases of meritorious
action'. In the suttas, 3 are mentioned consisting of giving generosity;
dāna-maya-p of morality
sīla-maya-p and of mental
development meditation; bhāvanā-maya-p.
See D. 33;
It. 60; expl. in
A. VIII, 36.
Commentaries have a list of ten dasa p which is very popular
in Buddhist countries: 1-3 as above, 4 reverence apaciti5 service
veyyāvacca 6 transference of merit pattānuppadāna 7 rejoicing in
others' merit abbhānumodana 8 expounding the Doctrine
desanā 9 listening to the Doctrine savana
10 straightening one's right views rectification of views; ditthujukamma
- Expl. in Atthasālini Tr. 209ff.
See 'The Advantages of Merit', by Bhikkhu Khantipalo BODHI LEAVES B. 38.
Purejāta-paccaya: 'pre-nascence', is
one of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Purification: the 7 stages of; see:
Purisindriya: 'Virility'; see:
Purity: the elements of the effort for: pārisuddhipadhāniyanga
Puthujjana: lit.: 'one of the many folk', 'worldling',
ordinary man, is any layman or Bhikkhu who is still possessed of all the 10
mental chains samyojana binding to
the round of rebirths, and therefore has not yet reached any of the 4 stages
of Nobility see: ariya-puggala.
Whoso is neither freed from the 3 mental chains personality-belief, sceptical
doubt, attachment to mere rule and ritual, nor is on the way to lose these
3 things, such a one is called a worlding; Pug.
According to Com. to
M. 9, a 'worlding' may be 1 an outsider
a non-Buddhist who, if he believed in moral causation, may be said to have
right view to that extent; but he has not the 'knowledge conforming to the
as has 2 the 'worldling inside the Buddha's Dispensation' sāsanika A
worlding who professes Buddhism, may be either a 'blind worldling' andha-p
who has neither knowledge of, nor interest in the fundamental teaching the
Truths, groups, etc.; or he is a 'noble worldling' kalyāna-p
who has such knowledge and earnestly strives to understand and practise the
Teaching. - See Atthasālini Tr. II,
451 tr. by 'average man'; Com. to