'contemplation on disinterestedness regarding the whole world', described
in A. X., 60 in the following words:;If, Ananda,
the Bhikkhu gives up his tenacious clinging to the world, his firm grasping
and his biases and inclinations of the mind, and turns away from these things,
does not cling to them, this, Ananda, is called the contemplation on disinterestedness
regarding the whole world
Sacca: 'Truth'. - 1. On the 'two truths', conventional
and ultimate, see paramattha
2. 'The Four Noble Truths' ariya-sacca
are the briefest synthesis of the entire teachings of Buddhism, since all those
many doctrines of the threefold canon are, without any exception, included
therein. They are: the truth of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the
ceasing of suffering, and of the 8-fold path
leading to the ceasing of suffering.
I. The 1st truth, briefly stated, teaches that all forms of existence whatsoever
are unsatisfactory and subject to suffering
II. The 2nd truth teaches that all suffering, and all rebirth, is produced
by craving tanhā.
III. The 3rd truth teaches that ceasing of craving necessarily results
in ceasing nirodha of rebirth and
suffering, i.e. nibbāna
IV. The 4th truth of the 8-fold path
magga indicates the means by which this
ceasing is attained.
The stereotype text frequently recurring in the Sutta Pitaka, runs as follows:
I. But what, o Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering? Birth is suffering,
decay is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and
despair are suffering; in short, the 5 groups of existence connected with
clinging are suffering cf. dukkha, dukkhata.
II. But what, o Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering?
It is that craving which gives rise to fresh rebirth and, bound up with lust
and greed, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the sensual
craving kāma-tanhā the craving
for existence bhava-tanhā the
craving for non-existence or self-annihilation
III. But what, o Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the ceasing of suffering?
It is the complete fading away and ceasing of this craving, its forsaking
and giving up, liberation and detachment from it.
IV. But what, o Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the
path leading to the ceasing of suffering? It
is the Noble 8-fold path ariya-atthangika-magga
that leads to the ceasing of suffering, namely:
|1. Right view
2. right motivation sammā-sankappa
III. Wisdom paññā
|3. Right speech sammā-vācā
4. Right action sammā-kammanta
5. Right livelihood samma-ājiva
I. Morality sīla
|6. Right effort sammā-vāyāma
7. Right awareness or mindfulness sammā-sati
8. Right concentration sammā-samādhi
1: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right view or right understanding? It is the
understanding of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the ceasing of suffering,
and of the path leading to the ceasing of suffering.
2: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right thought? It is a mind free from sensual
lust, ill-will and cruelty.
3: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right speech? Abstaining from lying, tale-bearing,
harsh words, and foolish babble cf.tiracchānakathā.
4: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right action? Abstaining from injuring living
beings, from stealing and from unlawful sexual intercourse see: kāmesu
5: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right livelihood? If the Noble Disciple rejects
a wrong living, and gains his living by means of right livelihood see:
6: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right effort? If the disciple rouses his will
to avoid the arising of evil, disadvantageous things that have not yet arisen;...
if he rouses his will to overcome the evil, disadvantageous things that have
already arisen;... if he rouses his will to produce meritorious things that
have not yet arisen;... if he rouses his will to maintain the meritorious things
that have already arisen and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to
growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development; he thus makes
effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives see:
7: What now, o Bhikkhus is right awareness or mindfulness? If the disciple
dwells in contemplation of materiality... of feeling... of mind... of the mental-objects,
ardent, clearly conscious, and mindful after putting away worldly greed and
grief see: satipatthāna.
8: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right concentration? If the disciple is detached
from sensual objects, detached from disadvantageous things, and enters into
the first absorption... the second absorption... the third absorption... the
fourth absorption; see: jhāna.
In the Buddha's first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, it is said
that the first truth suffering is to be fully understood; the second truth
craving to be abandoned; the third truth Nibbāna
to be realized; the fourth truth the path to
The truth of suffering is to be compared with a disease, the truth of the
origin of suffering with the cause of the disease, the truth of ceasing of
suffering with the cure of the disease, the truth of the
path with the medicine;
In the ultimate sense, all these 4 truths are to be considered as empty
of a self, since there is no feeling agent, no doer, no liberated one. no one
who follows along the path. Therefore it is
'Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found.
The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there.
Nibbāna is, but not the man that
The path is, but no traveller on it is seen.
'The first truth and the second truth are empty
Of permanency, joy, of self and beauty;
The Deathless Realm is empty of an ego,
And free from permanency, joy and self, the path.'
It must be pointed out that the first truth does not merely refer to actual
suffering, i.e. to suffering as feeling, but that it shows that, in consequence
of the universal law of impermanency, all the phenomena of existence whatsoever,
even the most sublime states of existence, are subject to change and dissolution,
and hence are miserable and unsatisfactory; and that thus, without exception,
they all contain in themselves the germ of suffering. Cf.
Guide, p. 101f.
Regarding the true nature of the path,
Literature: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta in
17 and BODHI LEAVES; M. 141;
Sacca-Samyutta S. LVI; Sacca Vibhanga;
W. of B.; Vis.M XVI: The Four Noble
Truths by Francis Story WHEEL
The Significance of the 4 Noble Truths by V. F. Gunaratna
Sacca-ñāna: 'knowledge of the truth'
see: prec., may be of 2 kinds: 1 knowledge consisting in understanding anubodha-ñāna
and 2 knowledge consisting in penetration
pativedha-ñāna i.e. realization.
Amongst these, 1 'knowledge consisting in understanding' is mundane
lokiya, and its arising with regard
to the ceasing of suffering, and to the path,
is due to hearsay etc. therefore not due to one's realization of the supra-mundane
ariya-puggala 2 'Knowledge consisting
in penetration', however, is supra-mundane
lokuttara with the ceasing of suffering =
nibbāna as object, it penetrates with
its functions the 4 truths in one and the same moment, as it is said
S. LVI, 30: whosoever, o Bhikkhus, understands
suffering, he also understands the origin of suffering, the ceasing of suffering,
and the path leading to the ceasing of suffering';
Vis.M XVI, 84. See
visuddhi end of article.
Of the mundane kinds of knowledge, however, the knowledge of suffering by
which various prejudices are overcome, dispels the personality-belief
ditthi The knowledge of the origin of
suffering dispels the annihilation-view
uccheda-ditthi, see: ditthi
the knowledge of ceasing of suffering, the eternity-view
ditthi the knowledge of the
path, the view of inefficacy of action
Vis.M XVI, 85.
Sacchikaranīyā dhammā: 'things to
be realized'. Recollection of former states of existence is to be realized
through remembrance abhiññā,. The vanishing
and reappearing of beings is to be realized through the divine eye
abhiññā,. The 8 deliverances
vimokkha are to be realized through
the mental group kāya here feeling, perception,
mental constructions; see: kāya The ceasing
of fermentations is to be realized through insight
Saddhā: faith, confidence. A Buddhist is said to
have faith if;he believes in the Perfect One's the Buddha's Enlightenment;
M 53; A.V, 2, or in the Three Jewels see:
ti-ratana by taking his refuge in
them see: ti-sarana His faith, however,
should be;reasoned and rooted in understanding; ākāravatā saddhā dassanamūlika
a href=dic2-abbrev.htm#M. M. 47, and he is asked to investigate and test
the object of his faith M. 47, 95.
A Buddhist's faith is not in conflict with the spirit of inquiry, and;doubt
about dubitable things; A. II, 65;
S. XLII, 13 is admitted and inquiry into
them is encouraged. The 'ability of faith' saddhindriya should be balanced
with that of understanding paññindriya see:
indriya-samatta It is said:;A
Bhikkhu who has understanding, establishes his faith in accordance with that
understanding; S. XLVIII, 45. Through understanding
and understanding, faith becomes an inner certainty and firm conviction based
on one's own experience.
Faith is called the seed Sn. v.
77 of all advantageous states because, according to commentarial explanations,
it inspires the mind with confidence okappana pasāda and determination
adhimokkha for 'launching out'
M. 122 to cross the flood of
Unshakable faith is attained on reaching the first stage of Nobility, 'stream-entry'
ariya-puggala when the fetter of
sceptical doubt vicikicchā see:
samyojana is eliminated. Unshakable
confidence avecca-pasāda in the Three Jewels is one of the characteristic
qualities of the Stream-winner
Faith is a mental concomitant, present in all kammically advantageous, and
its corresponding neutral, consciousness see: Tab. II..
It is one of the 4 streams of merit puññadhārā,, one of the 5 spiritual
abilities indriya, spiritual powers
bala,, elements of exertion
padhāniyanga and one of the 7
See Faith in the Buddha's Teaching, by Soma Thera
262.,Does Saddhā mean Faith?''
by ñānamoli Thera in WHEEL
Saddhā-vimutta: the 'faith-devoted and the
'faith-liberated', are two of the 7 kinds of Noble Disciples see:
Sagga: 'heaven'; see:
deva divine beings.
Sahajāta-paccaya: 'co-nascence', is one
of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Sakadāgāmī: the 'Once-returner': see:
Sakka: the 'King of Gods' devānam-inda
is the lord over the celestial beings in the heaven of the Thirty-Three'
Sakkāya: 'existing group'. 'this word is usually
translated by 'personality', but according to the commentaries it corresponds
to sat-kāya 'existing group', hence
not to Sanskrit sva-kāya 'own group'
or 'own body'. In the suttas e.g. M. 44
it is said to be a name for the 5 groups of existence
khandha : Sakkāya, o Brother Visākha,
is said by the Blessed One to be a name for the 5 groups as objects of
clinging upādāna-khandha to wit: materiality,
feeling, perception, mental constructions, and consciousness.; - See foll.
Sakkāya-ditthi: 'personality-belief', is
the first of the 10 mental chains samyojana
It is entirely abandoned only on reaching the path
of Stream-winning sotāpatti-magga
ariya-puggala There are 20 kinds
of personality-belief, which are obtained by applying 4 types of that belief
to each of the 5 groups of existence khandha
: 1-5 the belief to be identical with materiality, feeling, perception, mental
constructions or consciousness; 6-10 to be contained in them; 11-15 to be independent
of them; 16-20 to be the owner of them M.
44; S. XXII. 1. See prec.,
Salāyatana: the '6 bases' of mental activity;
see: āyatana, paticcasamuppāda.
Samādhi: 'concentration'; lit. 'the mental state
of being firmly fixed' sam+ā+Ö hā is the fixing of the mind on a single
object.,One-pointedness of mind cittass ekaggatā Brother Visakha,
this is called concentration; M. 44. Concentration
- though often very weak - is one of the 7 mental properties inseparably associated
with all consciousness. Cf.nāma,
Right concentration sammā-samādhi
as the last link of the 8-fold path see:
magga is defined as the 4 meditative
absorptions jhāna. In a wider sense,
comprising also much weaker states of concentration, it is associated with
all kammically advantageous kusala consciousness.
Wrong concentration micchā-samādhi
is concentration associated with all kammically disadvantageous
akusala consciousness. Wherever in
the texts this term is not differentiated by 'right' or 'wrong', there 'right'
concentration is meant.
In concentration one distinguishes 3 grades of intensity:
1 'Preparatory concentration'
parikamma-samādhi existing at the beginning of the mental exercise.
2 'Neighbourhood concentration'
upacāra-samādhi i.e. concentration 'approaching' but not yet attaining
the 1st absorption jhāna, which in certain
mental exercises is marked by the appearance of the so-called 'counter-image'
3 'Attainment concentration' appanā-samādhi
i.e. that concentration which is present during the absorptions.
Further details, see: bhāvana, Vis.M
III and Fund. IV.
Concentration connected with the 4 noble
path-moments magga and fruition-moments
phala is called supra-mundane
Nibbāna as object. Any other concentration,
even that of the most sublime absorptions is merely mundane
According to D. 33, the development
of concentration samādhi-bhāvanā
may procure a 4-fold blessing: 1 present happiness through the 4 absorptions;
2 knowledge and vision ñāna-dassana
- here probably identical with the 'divine eye' see:
abhiññā through perception of light
kasina 3 awareness or mindfulness and
clear comprehension through the clear knowledge of the arising, persisting
and vanishing of feelings, perceptions and thoughts; 4 ceasing of all fermentations
āsavakkhaya through understanding
the arising and passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects of clinging
Concentration is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment
bojjhanga, one of the 5 spiritual
abilities and powers see: bala and the
last link of the 8-fold path. In the 3-fold
division of the 8-fold path morality, concentration
and understanding, it is a collective name for the three last links of the
path see: sikkhā.
Samādhi-parikkhāra: 'means, or requisites
of concentration', are the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness
thiti-kusalatā-utthānakusalatā skilfulness in entering
into concentration, in remaining in it, and in rising from it. Cf.
'concentration as link to Awakening' see:
Samādhi-vipphārā iddhi: the 'power
of penetrating concentration', is one of the magical abilities
is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Sāmañña-phala: the 'fruits of monkhood',
is the name of a famous sutta D. 2 and
also, according to D. 33, a name for
the 4 supra-mundane fruitions: Stream-entrance, Once-return, Non-return, and
Perfect Nobility see: ariya-puggala
Samāpatti: 'attainments', is a name for the
8 absorptions of the fine-material and immaterial spheres to which occasionally
is added as 9th attainment, attainment of ceasing nirodhasamāpatti Cf.
Sama-sīsī: one 'who attains two ends simultaneously',
namely: the ceasing of fermentations and the end of life see:
Pug. 19. In
A. VIII, 6 it is said:,Such is the case with
a Bhikkhu who dwells in the contemplation of impermanency of all forms of existence,
keeping before his eyes their impermanency, perceiving their impermanency,
perseveringly, steadfastly, undisturbed, of firm mind, wisely absorbed; and
in whom at one and the same time the ceasing of fermentations and the end of
like take place.; App.
Samatha: 'tranquillity', serenity, is a synonym
of samādhi coneentration, cittekaggatā
one-pointedness of mind and avikkhepa
undistractedness. It is one of the mental properties in 'advantageous consciousness.
Cf. foll. and bhāvanā
Samatha-vipassanā: 'tranquillity and
insight', are identical with concentration
samādhi see: prec. and understanding
paññā, and form the two branches of mental development
1 'Tranquillity' is all unperturbed, peaceful and lucid state of mind attained
by strong mental concentration. Though as a distinct way of practice see:
samatha-yānika, it aims at the
attainment of the meditative absorptions jhāna,
a high degree of tranquil concentration though not necessarily that of the
absorptions is indispensable for insight too. Tranquillity frees the mind from
impurities and inner obstacles, and gives it greater penetrative strength.
''What now is the power of tranquillity
samatha-bala It is the one-pointedness
and non-distraction of the mind due to freedom from desire renunciation...
to freedom from ill-will... to the perception of light see: āloka-saññā..
to non-distraction... to the defilling of phenomena... to knowledge, gladness,
the 8 attainments, the 10 kasinas, the 10 recollections,
the 9 cemetery contemplations, the 32 kinds of respiration-awareness or mindfulness...
the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind of one contemplating abandonment
relinquishment while inhaling and exhaling see:
The power of tranquillity consists of the freedom from perturbation; in
the 1st absorption, from the 5 hindrances
nīvarana, in the 2nd absorption, from thought-conception and discursive
thinking;... in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception it consists
of the freedom from perturbation by the perception of the sphere of nothingness
see: anupubbanirodha which is no longer agitated and irritated by defilements
associated with restlessness, nor by the groups of existence;
Pts.M. 1. p. 97
2 'Insight' see: vipassanā is
the penetrative understanding by direct meditative experience of the impermanency,
unsatisfactoriness and impersonality of all
material and mental phenomena of existence. It is insight that leads to entrance
into the supermundance states of Nobility and to final liberation.
''What now is the power of insight? It is the contemplation of impermanency
anattānupassanā of aversion
nibbidanupassanā detachment virāganupassanā ceasing
nirodha ahandonment patinissagga
with regard to materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions and consciousness.
That in contemplating the impermanency one is no more agitated by the idea
of grasping... no more by ignorance and the defilements associated therewith
and no more by the groups of existence: this is called the power of insight;
Pts.M. p. 97.
Two things are conducive to knowledge: tranquillity and insight. If tranquillity
is developed, what profit does it bring? The mind is developed. If the mind
is developed, what profit does it bring? All lust is abandoned.
If insight is developed, what profit does it bring? Wisdom is developed.
If understanding is developed, what profit does it bring? All ignorance is
abandoned; A. II, 2.7.
There is a method of meditative practice where, in alternating sequence,
tranquillity-meditation and insight-meditation are developed. It is called
'tranquillity and insight joined in pairs'
samatha-vipassanāyuganaddha the coupling or yoking of tranquillity
and insight. He who undertakes it, first enters into the 1st absorption. After
rising from it, he contemplates the mental phenomena that were present in it
feeling, perception, etc. as impermanent, painful and no-self, and thus he
develops insight. Thereupon he enters into the 2nd absorption; and after rising
from it, he again considers its constituent phenomena as impermanent, etc.
In this way, he passes from one absorption to the next, until at last, during
a moment of insight, the intuitive knowledge of the
path of Stream-entry, etc. flashes forth - See
A. IV, 170; A.IX,
36; Pts: Yuganaddha Kathā.
Samatha-yānika: 'one who takes tranquillity
as his vehicle'. This is a name for a person who not only has reached insight
but also one or the other of the absorptions, to distinguish him from one 'who
practises only insight' sukkha-vipassaka.
Sambodhi: = bodhi
sankappa-vaca etc: see
Sammā-ppadhāna: 'right exertion', is identical
with the 6th link of the 8-fold path see:
Sammā-sambodhi: 'Perfect Enlightenment',
Universal Buddhahood, is the state attained by a Universal Buddha sammā-sambuddha
i.e. one by whom the liberating law dhamma
which had become lost to the world, has again been discovered, realized and
clearly proclaimed to the world.
Now, someone, in things never heard before, understands by himself the truth,
and he therein attains omniscience, and gains mastery in the powers. Such a
one is called a Universal Buddha, or Enlightened One;
The doctrine characteristie of all the Buddhas, and each time rediscovered
by them and fully explained to the world, consists in the 4 Truths
sacca of suffering, its origin, its ceasing
and the way to its ceasing see: magga
Sammasana: 'comprehension', exploring, 'determining'
vavatthāna is a name for the determining
of all phenomena of existence as impermanent, miserable and impersonal
dukkha anattā etc., which
is the beginning of insight see: Pts.M.
I, p. 53; Vis.M XX; also called
kalāpa-s, 'comprehension by groups
of existence khandha
Sammatta: the 'state of rightness', are the 8
links of the 8-fold path
D. 33. Cf. micchātta
truth', is identical with vohāra-sacca
Sampadā: 'attainment, blessing'. The 5 blessings
are said to be faith, morality, learning, generosity, understanding
A. V, 91. Further: morality, concentration,
understanding, deliverance, the eye of knowledge connected with deliverance
A. V, 92.
Sampajañña: 'clarity of consciousness', clear
comprehension. This term is frequently met with in combination with awareness
or mindfulness sati In
M. 10 it is said:;Clearly conscious is
he in going and coming, clearly conscious in looking forward and backward,
clearly conscious in bending and stretching his body; clearly conscious in
eating, drinking, chewing and tasting, clearly conscious in discharging excrement
and urine; clearly conscious in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep
and awakening; clearly conscious in speaking and keeping silent.; - For a definition
of the term sati-sampajañña
see: Pug. 86.
According to the Com., 'clarity
of consciousness' is of 4 kinds: regarding the purpose, the suitability, inclusion
in the meditative domain, and the unconfused conception of the activity concerned.
Explained in detail in Com. to Satipatthāna
Sutta. tr. in The Way of Mindfulness, by Soma Thera;
consciousness', is the mindelement mano-dhātu
that follows immediately upon the arising of sense-consciousness visual consciousness,
etc., performing on that occasion the function of recciving the sense-object.
Regarding the other functions of consciousness, see:
Sampayutta-paccaya: 'condition of association',
is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Samsāra: 'round of rebirth', lit. perpetual wandering',
is a name by which is designated the sca of life ever restlessly heaving up
and down, the symbol of this continuous process of ever again and again being
born, growing old, suffering and dying. More precisely put,
samsāra is the unbroken chain of the
five-fold khandha combinations, which,
constantly changing from moment to moment follow continuously one upon the
other through inconceivable periods of time. Of this
samsāra a single lifetime constitutes
only a tiny and fleeting fraction; hence to be able to comprehend the first
noble truth of universal suffering, one must let one's gaze rest upon the
samsāra upon this frightful chain of
rebirths, and not merely upon one single life-time, which, of course, may be
sometimes less painful. - Cf. tilakkhana, anattā, paramattha, patisandhi.
Samseva: 'companionship'. 1: Through companionship
with bad men asappurisa-s comes listening to bad advice, thereby
unwise reflection, thereby inattention and mental confusion, thereby lack of
sense-control, thereby 3-fold bad conduct in bodily action, speech and mind,
thereby the 5 hindrances nīvarana,
thereby craving for existence. 2: Through companionship with good men sappurisa-s
comes listening to good advice, thereby faith, thereby wise reflection, thereby
awareness or mindfulness and clarity of consciousness, thereby sense-control,
thereby 3-fold good conduct, thereby the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness
satipatthāna q.v, thereby the
7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga,
thereby liberation through understanding
paññā-vimutti.; Cf. A. X 62.
Samuccheda-pahāna: 'overcoming by destruction',
is the absolute ceasing of certain mental chains of existence
samyojana, which takes place by entering
into one of the 4 supra-mundane paths of Nobility
see: ariya-puggala Regarding
the 5 kinds of overcoming, see: pahāna
Samudaya-sacca: 'truth of the origin',
i.e. the origin of suffering, is the 2nd of the 4 Noble Truths
Samutthāna: 'origination'. There are 4 kinds
of origination of material phenomena, namely: through kamma, consciousness,
temperature, nutriment. For example, 'kamma-produced'
kamma-s. = kammaja
kamma-born are the sense organs, sexual characteristics, etc., which, according
to their nature, are conditioned either through advantageous or disadvantageous
kamma constructions intentional actions; see:
paticcasamuppāda 2 in a previous
existence. 'Mindproduced', i.e. consciousness-produced citta-samutthāna
= cittaja are bodily and verbal expression
viññatti. For a detailed exposition,
see Vis.M XX. -
Samvara-padhāna: 'effort to avoid'; see:
Samvara-suddhi: 'purity of control', is
another name for morality consisting of restraint of the senses
Samvega-vatthu: 'the sources of emotion',
or of a sense of urgency, are 8:,birth, old age, disease, death, being 4; the
suffering in the lower states of existence being the 5th; further, the
misery of the past rooted in the cycle of rebirth,
the misery of the future rooted in the cycle
of rebirth, the misery of the present rooted
in the search after food; Vis.M III..
Samvejanīya-tthāna: 'places rousing
emotion', are 4: the place where the Perfect One was born, i.e. the Lumbini-grove
near Kapilavatthu, at the present frontier of Nepal; the place where he reached
Full Enlightenment i.e. Uruvela, the modern Ureli, and Buddhagayā, on the Nerañjara-river;
the modern Lilanja; the place where he, for the first time, unveiled the Dhamma
to the world i.e. the deer-park at Isipatana near Benares; the place where
he entered the final Nibbāna i.e. Kusināra.
A. IV, 118.
Samyojana: 'mental chains'. There are 10 mental
chains tying beings to the wheel of existence, namely; 1: personality-or-ego-belief
sakkāya-ditthi, 2: sceptical
doubt vicikicchā, 3: clinging to
mere rules and ritual sīlabbata-parāmāsa,
see: upādāna 4 sense-craving
kāma-rāga.v., 5 ill-will
vyāpāda 6 craving for fine-material
7 craving for immaterial existence arūpa-rāga
8 conceit māna, 9 restlessness
uddhacca,, 10 ignorance
avijjā. The first five of these are
called 'lower mental chains'
orambhāgiya-samyojana as they tie to the sense-world. The latter 5
are called 'higher mental chains'
as they tie to the higher worlds, i.e. the fine-material and immaterial world
A. IX, 67, 68; X. 13; D. 33, etc..
He who is free from 1-3 is a Sotāpanna, or Stream-winner, i.e. one who has
entered the stream to Nibbāna, as it were. He who, besides these 3 mental chains,
has overcome 4 and 5 in their grosser form, is called a Sakadāgāmi, a 'Once-returner'
to this sense-world. He who is fully freed from 1-5 is an Anāgāmī, or 'Non-returner'
to the sense-world. He who is freed from all the 10 mental chains is called
an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly Noble One.
For more details, see: ariya-puggala.
The 10 mental chains as enumerated in the Abhidhamma, e.g.
Vibh. XVII, are: sense-craving, ill-will,
conceit, wrong views, sceptical doubt, clinging to mere rules and ritual, craving
for existence, envy, stinginess, ignorance.
Sangaha-vatthu: the 4 'ways of showing
favour' are generosity, kindly speech, beneficial actions, impartiality
A. IV, 32; VIII, 24.
Sangha: lit.: congregation, is the name for the
Community of Buddhist Bhikkhus. As the third of the Three Gems or Jewels
ti-ratana and the Three Refuges
ti-sarana,, i.e. Buddha, Dhamma and
Sangha, it applies to the ariya-sangha
the community of the saints, i.e. the 4 Noble Ones ariya-pugga,
the Stream-winner, etc.
Sankappa: 'thought', is a synonym of vitakka
For sammā-s or right thought, see:
Sankhāra: This term has, according to its context,
different shades of meaning, which should be carefully distinguished.
I To its most frequent usages see: foll. 1-4 the general term 'construction'
may be applied, with the qualifications required by the context. This term
may refer either to the act of 'forming or to the passive state of 'having
been formed' or to both.
1. As the 2nd link of the formula of dependent origination,
sankhāra has the active aspect, 'forming,
and signifies kamma, i.e. advantageous or disadvantageous intentional activity
cetanā of body
kāya-s speech vacī-s
or mind citta or
mano-s This definition occurs,
e.g. at S. XII, 2, 27. For s.:
in this sense, the word 'kamma-construction' has been coined by the author.
In other passages, in the same context, s. is defined by reference
to a meritorious kammic-constructions puññ'ābhisankhāra b disadvantageous
k. apuññ'abhisankhāra c imperturbable k. āneñj'ābhisankhāra
e.g. in S. XII, 51;
D. 33. This threefold division covers
kammic activity in all spheres of existence: the meritorious kammic-constructions
extend to the sense-and the fine-material sphere, the disadvantageous ones
only to the sense-sphere, and the 'imperturbable' only to the immaterial sphere.
2. The aforementioned three terms, kāya,
vacī- and citta-s are
sometimes used in quite a different sense, namely as 1 bodily function, i.e.
in-and-out-breathing e.g. M. 10, 2 verbal
function, i.e. thought-conception and discursive thinking, 3 mental-function,
i.e. feeling and perception e.g. M.
44. See nirodhasamāpatti.
3. It also denotes the 4th group of existence sankhāra-khandha
and includes all 'mental constructions' whether they belong to 'kammically
forming' consciousness or not. See khandha
Tab. II. and S.
XXII, 56, 79.
4. It occurs further in the sense of anything formed
sankhata and conditioned, and includes
all things whatever in the world, all phenomena of existence. This meaning
applies, e.g. to the well-known passage,;All constructions are impermanent...
subject to suffering; sabbe sankhāra
aniccā dukkhā In that context, however, s. is subordinate
to the still wider and all-embracing term dhamma
thing; for dhamma includes also the
Unformed or Unconditioned Element asankhata-dhātu
i.e. Nibbāna e.g. in sabbe,
dhammā all things are without a self;.
II sankhāra also means sometimes
'intentional effort', e.g. in the formula of the roads to power
iddhi-pāda, in sasankhāra
see: anāgāmī, and in the Abhidhamma terms asankhārika and
without effort = spontaneously, and with effort = prompted.
In Western literature, in English as well as in German,
sankhāra is sometimes mistranslated
by 'subconscious latent tendencies' or similarly e.g Prof Beckh:,unterbewußte
Bildekräfte,; i.e. subconscious formative forces. This misinterpretation derives
perhaps from a similar usage in non-Buddhist Sanskrit literature, and is entirely
inapplicable to the connotations of the term in Pāli Buddhism, as listed above
under I, 1-4. For instance, within the dependent origination, s. is neither
subconscious nor a mere tendency, but is a fully conscious and active kammic
intention. In the context of the 5 groups of existence see: above I, 3, a very
few of the factors from the group of mental constructions
are also present as properties of subconsciousness see:
Tab. I-III, but are of course
not restricted to it, nor are they mere latent tendencies.
Sankhārupekkhā-ñāna: the 'equanimity-knowledge
with regard to the constructions of existence', is one of those kinds of knowledge
which form the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the
visuddhi VI, 8.;It is known by 3 names:
in the lowest stage it is called 'knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance'
the middle stage it is called the 'reflecting contemplation' patisankhānupassanāñāna
in the last stage, however, i.e. after attaining the summit, it is called the
'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the constructions of existence'Vis.M
Sankhata: the 'constructed' or 'formed', i.e.
anything originated or conditioned, comprises all phenomena of existence. Cf.
sankhāra I, 4;
Sankhitta citta: in the Satipatthāna Sutta,
signifies the 'contracted' or 'cramped' mind, not the concentrated samāhita
mind, as often translated by Western authors. Cf.
Saññā: 1. 'perception', is one of the 5 groups of
existence khandha, and one of the 7
mental properties cetasika that are
inseparably bound up with all consciousness see:
cetanā It is sixfold as perception of the
5 physical sense-objects and of mental objects. It is the awareness of an object's
distinctive marks,one perceives blue, yellow, etc.,;
S. XXII, 79. If, in repeated perception
of an object, these marks are recognized,
saññā functions as 'memory' see:
Abh. St., p. 68f..
2. saññā stands sometimes for consciousness
in its entirety, e.g. in
n'eva-saññā-n'āsaññāyatana 'the realm of neither-perception-nor-non-perception';
further, in asaññā-satta 'unconscious
beings'. In both cases reference is not to 'perception' alone, but also to
all other constituents of consciousness. Cf. D.
3. saññā may also refer to the
'ideas', which are objects of meditation, e.g. in a group of 7 ideas, of
anicca-s etc. A. VII, 46;
of 10: impurity asubha-s etc. A.
X, 56, and another set of 10 in A. X. 60;
or to wrong notions, as in nicca, subha-s the notion of
permanence, beauty, etc.
Saññā-vipallāsa: 'perversion of perception'
Santāna: = santati 'continuity', may refer
to the continuity of consciousness citta-s
of the groups of existence khandha-s
of sub-consciousness bhavanga-s of materiality
rūpa-s to the uninterrupted continuity
of the paticcasamuppāda, etc.
Santīrana-citta: 'investigating consciousness',
is one of the stages in the cognitive series. For the 14 functions of consciousness.
Santutthitā: 'contentedness'; see:
Sappatigha-rūpa: 'materiality reacting
to sense stimuli', refers to the 5 sense-organs
āyatana. - Cf.
Vibh. II see:
Guide II, Chap. II and
Vis.M XIV; further see:
Sarana: s. ti-sarana.
Sāsana: lit. 'message': the Dispensation of the
Buddha, the Buddhist religion; teaching, doctrine.
navanga-Buddha or satthu-sāsana
the ninefold Dispensation of the Buddha or the Master consists of suttas
sutta mixed prose geyya exegesis veyyākarana verses gāthā
solemn utterances udāna sayings of the Blessed One itivuttaka
birth stories jātaka extraordinary things abbhutadhamma and analysis
vedalla This classification is often found in the suttas e.g.
M. 22. According to the commentaries, also
the Vinaya and the Abhidhamma Pitaka are comprised in that ninefold division
see Atthasālini Tr., I, 33. It
is a classification according to literary styles, and not according to given
texts or books.
Sasankhāra-parinibbāyī: 'one who
reaches Nibbāna with exertion', is
a name of one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners anāgāmī.
Dhs.: sasankhārena a prepared,
or prompted. state of consciousness, arisen after prior deliberation e.g. weighing
of motives or induced by others command, advice, persuasion - See
Tab. I; exemplified in
Vis.M XIV, 84f. - Opposite:
Sassata-ditthi: -vāda: 'eternity-belief',
is the belief in a soul or personality existing independently of the 5 groups
of existence, and continuing after death eternally, as distinguished from the
i.e. the belief in a personality falling at death a prey to absolute annihilation.
For more details, see: ditthi
Sati: 'awareness or mindfulness', is one of the 5
spiritual abilities and powers see: bala
one of the 7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga,
and the 7th link of the 8-fold path
magga, and is, in its widest sense, one
of those mental properties inseparably associated with all kammically advantageous
kusala and kamma-produced lofty
sobhana consciousness Cf.
Tab. II.. - For the 4 foundations of awareness or
mindfulness see: foll.
Satipatthāna: the 4 'foundations of awareness
or mindfulness', lit. 'awarenesses of awareness or mindfulness'
sati-upatthāna are: contemplation
of body, feeling, mind and mental-objects. - For
sati see: prec.
A detailed treatment of this subject, so important for the practice of Buddhist
mental culture, is given in the 2 Satipatthāna Suttas
M. 10, which at the start as well as the
conclusion, proclaim the weighty words:;The only way that leads to the attainment
of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain
and grief, to the entering of the right path,
and to the realization of Nibbāna is
the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness
After these introductory words, and upon the question which these 4 are,
it is said that the Bhikkhu dwells in contemplation of the body, the feelings,
the mind, and the mental-objects,;ardent, clearly conscious and mindful, after
putting away worldly greed and grief
These 4 contemplations are in reality not to be taken as merely separate
exercises, but on the contrary, at least in many cases, especially in the absorptions,
as things inseparably associated with each other. Thereby the Satipathāna
Sutta forms an illustration of the way in which these 4 contemplations relating
to the 5 groups of existence khandha
simultaneously come to be realized, and finally lead to insight into the
impersonality of all existence.
1: The contemplation of the body kāyanupassanā consists of the following
exercises: awareness or mindfulness with regard to in-and-outbreathing
ānāpānasati, minding the 4 postures
iriyāpatha, awareness or mindfulness
and clarity of consciousness satisampajañña, reflection on the 32 parts
of the body see: kāyagatāsati and asubha analysis of the 4 physical
elements dhātuvavatthāna, cemetery meditations
2: All feelings vedanānupassanā
that arise in the meditator he clearly perceives, namely: pleasant
and painful feeling of body and mind, sensual and super-sensual feeling, indifferent
3: He further clearly perceives and understands any state of consciousness
or mind cittānupassanā:
whether it is greedy or not, hateful or not, confused or not, cramped or distracted,
developed or undeveloped, surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated or unconcentrated,
liberated or unliberated.
4: Concerning the mental-objects
dhammānupassanā he knows whether
one of the five hindrances nīvarana
is present in him or not, knows how it arises, how it is overcome, and how
in future it does no more arise. He knows the nature of each of the five groups
khandha, how they arise, and how they
are dissolved. He knows the 12 bases of all mental activity
āyatana : the eye and the visual object,
the ear and the audible object,.. mind and mental-object, he knows the mental
chains samyojana based on them,
knows how they arise, how they are overcome, and how in future they do no
more arise. He knows whether one of the seven factors of enlightenment
bojjhanga is present in him or not,
knows how it arises, and how it comes to full development. Each of the Four
Noble Truths sacca he understands according
The 4 contemplations comprise several exercises, but the Satipatthāna should
not therefore be thought of as a mere collection of meditation subjects, any
one of which may be taken out and practised alone. Though most of the exercises
appear also elsewhere in the Buddhist scriptures, in the context of this sutta
they are chiefly intended for the cultivation of awareness or mindfulness and
insight, as indicated by the repetitive passage concluding each section of
the sutta see below. The 4 contemplations cover all the 5 groups of existence
khandha, because awareness or mindfulness
is meant to encompass the whole personality. Hence, for the full development
of awareness or mindfulness, the practice should extend to all 4 types of contemplation,
though not every single exercise mentioned under these four headings need be
taken up. A methodical practice of Satipatthāna has to start with one of the
exercises out of the group 'contemplation of the body', which will serve as
the primary and regular subject of meditation: The other exercises of the group
and the other contemplatons are to be cultivated when occasion for them arises
during meditation and in everyday life.
After each contemplation it is shown how it finally leads to insight-knowledge:,Thus
with regard to his own body he contemplates the body, with regard to the bodies
of others he contemplates the body, with regard to both he contemplates the
body. He beholds how the body arises and how it passes away, beholds the arising
and passing away of the body. 'A body is there' but no living being, no individual,
no woman, no man, no self, nothing that belongs to a self; neither a person,
nor anything belonging to a person; Com.:
thus he has established his attentiveness as far as it serves his knowledge
and awareness or mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything
in the world.''
In the same way he contemplates feeling, mind and mental-objects.
In M. 118 it is shown how these
four foundations of awareness or mindfulness may be brought about by the exercise
of awareness or mindfulness on in-and-out breathing
Literature: The Way of Mindfullness, tr. of Sutta and
Com., by Soma Thera 3rd ed; Kandy 1967,
BPS. - The Heart of Buddhist Meditation,
by Nyanaponika Thera 3rd ed.; London. Rider & Co.. The Foundations of Mindfulness
tr. of M. 10, Nyanasatta Thera Wheel
19. The Satipatthāna Sutta and its Application to Modern Life, V.
F. Gunaratna WHEEL
60. - The Power
of Mindfulness by Nyanaponika Thera WHEEL
Sati-sambojjhanga: 'awareness or mindfulness
as link to Awakening' see: bojjhanga
Sati-sampajañña: 'awareness or mindfulness
and clarity of consciousness, see: sampajañña.
Satta: 'living being'. This term, just like
jīva and all the other terms denoting
'ego-entity', is to be considered as a merely conventional term vohāra-vacana
not possessing any reality-value. For the impersonality
of all existence. see: anattā,
Sattakkhattu-parama: 'one wth only
7 further rebirths at the utmost', is one of the 3 kinds of Stream-winners
Sattāvāsa: Nava sattāvāsa:
'9 abodes of beings'. In the sutta-texts e.g.
A.IX, 24 9 such abodes are mentioned:
There are, o Bhikkhus, 9 abodes of beings, namely:
1;There are beings who are different in body and different in perception,
such as the human beings, some divine beings, and some beings living in the
world of suffering vinipātika.
2 ''There are beings who are different in body but equal in perception,
such as the first-born gods of the Brahma-world i.e. at the beginning of each
new world-construction; s. deva II.
3 ''There are beings who are equal in body but different in perception,
such as the Radiant Gods ābhassara
see: deva II.
4;There are beings who are equal in body and equal in perception, such
as the All-Illuminating Gods subha-kinha
see: deva II.
5;There are beings without perception and feeling, such as the unconscious
6;There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of perceptions
of matter rūpa-sañña the disappearance
of perceptions of sense-reaction patigha-sañña,
and the non-attention to perceptions of variety thinking: 'Infinite is space',
are reborn in the sphere of buundless space see:
deva III; jhāna.
7;There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of
Infinite space, thinking: 'Infinite is consciousness', are reborn in the sphere
of Infinite consciousness see: jhāna
8;There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of
Infinite consciousness, thinking: 'Nothing is there, are reborn in the sphere
of nothingness see: jhāna 7.
9;There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of
nothingness, are reborn in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
see: jhāna 8;
A. IX, 24.
According to the Com. to
A., the beings of the Pure Abodes
suddhāvāsa are not mentioned here,
for the reason that they exist only in those world-periods in which Buddhas
appear. Cf. viññāna-tthiti.
Sāvaka: 'hearer', i.e. 'disciple', refers, in a
restricted sense then mostly ariya-sāvaka
'nohle disciple', only to the 8 kinds of Noble Disciples
Sāvaka-bodhi: 'enlightenment of the disciple',
designates the Nobility of the disciple, as distinguished from the Nobility
of the Pacceka-Buddha and the Sammā-sambuddha:.
Sekha: a 'noble learner', a disciple in higher training,
i.e. one who pursues the 3 kinds of training
sikkhā, is one of those 7 kinds of Noble Disciples who have reached one of the 4 supra-mundane
paths or the 3 lower fruitions see:
ariya-puggala while the one possessed
of the 4th fruition, or Arahatta-phala, is called 'one beyond training'
asekha lit. 'no more learner'. The worldling
puthujjana is called 'neither a
noble learner, nor perfected in learning' n'eva-sekha-nāsekha
Cf. Pug. 23-25.
Self-annihilation: craving for: vibhava-Tanhā
Senāsana: 'dwelling place', is one of the 4 requisites
of the monk's life see: sīla 4. To be
suitable for spiritual training, it should possess 5 advantages. As it is said
A. X, 11:;But how, o Bhikkhus, does the dwelling
place possess 5 advantages? Such a dwelling place is not too far, nor too near
to the village, is suitable for going on foodround and returning. In the daytime
it is not much crowded, and at night without noise and bustle. One is not much
molested there by gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun and creeping things. While
living there, the Bhikkhu without difficulty obtains robes, foodfood, dwelling,
and the necessary medicines. There are elder Bhikkhus living there, with great
learning, well versed in the Message, masters of the Law
dhamma of the Discipline vinaya
and of the Tables of Contents i.e. either the twofold Abhidhamma Matrix, or
the Bhikkhu and Bhikkhuni Pātimokkha; see:
pātimokkha And he approaches them from time to time, questions them,
asks them for explanations, etc.
Sense-organs: and objects: s.
Sense-stimuli: materiality responding to:
Sensuality: subj. & obj.:
Sense-clinging: kāmūpādāna see:
is one of the 10 mental chains samyojana,
and one of the 3 kinds of craving tanhā.
Sense-sphere: -world: see:
Seven rebirths at the utmost:
Sex: s. bhāva.
Sexual intercourse: unlawful: see:
Signless: animitta: see:
Sikkhā: the 'training', which the Buddha's disciple
has to undergo, is 3-fold: training in higher morality
adhisīla-sikkhā in higher mentality
adhicitta-sikkhā and in higher
This 3-fold training refers to the 3-fold division of the 8-fold
in morality, concentration and understanding sīla
paññā In D.
16 and A.IV,1 it is said:
It is through not understanding, not penetrating noble morality... noble
concentration... noble understanding... noble deliverance that I, as well as
you, have had for such a long time to pass through this round of rebirths.''
This then is morality, this concentration, this understanding, this deliverance.
Being endowed with morality, concentration brings high fruit and blessing.
Being endowed with concentration, understanding brings high fruit and blessing.
Being endowed with understanding, the mind becomes freed from all fermentations
āsava namely, from the sense-fermentation
kāmāsava, from the fermentation of existence
bhavasava from the fermentation of opinions ditthisava from the fermentation
of ignorance avijjāsava
Sikkhāpada: 'steps of training', moral rules.
The 5 moral rules, also called pañca-sīla
which are binding on all Buddhist laymen, are: 1 abstaining from killing any
living being, 2 from stealing, 3 from unlawful sexual intercourse, 4 from lying,
5 from the use of intoxicants. see: surāmeraya etc.
The 10 rules dasa-sīla are binding
on all novices and Bhikkhus, namely: 1 abstaining from killing, 2 from stealing,
3 from unchastity, 4 from lying, 5 from the use of intoxicants, 6 from eating
after midday, 7 from dancing, singing, music and shows, 8 from garlands, scents,
cosmetics and adornments, etc., 9 from luxurious beds, 10 from accepting gold
In the 8 rules attha-sīla which
on full and new moon days, and on the first and last quarter of the moon, are
observed by many lay-followers upāsaka,
the 7th and 8th of the above 10 rules are fused into one as the 7th rule, while
the 9th becomes the 8th.
Sīla: 'morality', 'virtue', is a mode of mind and
intention cetanā manifested in speech
or bodily action see: kamma. It is the foundation of the whole Buddhist practice,
and therewith the first of the 3 kinds of training
sikkhā that form the 3-fold division of
the 8-fold path see:
magga i.e. morality, concentration and
Buddhist morality is not, as it may appear from the negative formulations
in the Sutta-texts, something negative. And it does not consist in the mere
not committing of evil actions, but is in each instance the clearly conscious
and intentional restraint from the bad actions in question and corresponds
to the simultaneously arising intention.
Morality of the 8-fold path, namely, right
speech, right action and right livelihood, is called 'genuine or natural morality'
pakatisīla as distinguished from the external rules for Bhikkhus or
laymen, the so-called 'prescribed morality' paññatti-sīla,,
which, as such, is kammically neutral.
What now is kammically advantageous morality
kusala-sīla It is the advantageous
bodily action kāya-kamma see: kamma,
advantageous verbal action vacī-kamma
kamma, and also the purity with regard to livelihood which I call morality;
M. 78. Cf.
For the 5, 8 and 10 rules, see: sikkhāpada
Further cf. cāritta and
The 4 kinds of morality consisting of purification catu-pārisuddhi-sīla-sīla
are: 1 restraint with regard to the Bhikkhus' Disciplinary Code, 2 restraint
of the senses, 3 purification of livelihood, 4 morality with regard to the
4 requisites of the monk.
1: Restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code
the Bhikkhu is restrained in accordance with the Bhikkhus' Disciplinary Code,
is perfect in conduct and behaviour, and perceiving danger even in the least
offences, he trains himself in the rules he has taken upon him; A. V, 87,109,114,
2: Restraint of the senses
indriya-samvara-sīla Whenever the Bhikkhu perceives a form with
the eye, a sound with the ear, an odour with the nose, a taste with the tongue,
an contact with the body, an object with the mind, he neither adheres to the
appearance as a whole, nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through
which evil and disadvantageous things, greed and sorrow, would arise, if he
remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains
his senses; M 38.
3: Purification of livelihood
It consists therein that the Bhikkhu does not acquire his livelihood in a
way unbefitting to a monk.
4: Morality with regard to the 4 recquisites
It consists therein that the Bhikkhu is guided by the right mental attitude
when making use of the 4 requisites: robes, foodfood, dwelling and medicine.;Wisely
reflecting he makes use of his robes... merely to protect himself against
cold and heat, etc. Wisely reflecting he makes use of his foodfood... merely
as a prop and support to this body. Wisely reflecting he makes use of
his dwelling... merely to keep off the dangers of weather and to enjoy solitude.
Wisely reflecting he makes use of the necessary medicines, merely to suppress
feelings of sickness that arise, and to reach perfect freedom from suffering;
cf. M. 2.
About these 4 kinds of morality, Vis.M
I gives a detailed exposition.
Sīlabbata-upādāna: 'attachment or clinging
to mere rules and ritual', is the 3rd of the 10 mental chains
samyojana, and one of the 4 kinds
of clinging upādāna. It disappears
on attaining to Stream-entry sotāpatti.
For definition, see: upādāna
Silent buddha: pacceka-buddha.
Sitting position: sleeping in: see:
Sīvathikā: 'cemetery contemplations', as described
in D. 22 and
M. 10, have as their objects a corpse one
or two or three days old, swollen up, blue-black in colour, full of corruption;
a corpse eaten by crows, etc.; a framework of bones; flesh hanging from it,
bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews; without flesh and blood,
but still held together by the sinews; bones scattered in all direction; bleached
and resembling shells; heaped together after the lapse of years; weathered
and crumbled to dust. At the end of each of these contemplations there follows
the conclusion:;This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, cannot
escape it.; Similar are the 10 objects of loathsomeness asubha.
Sobhana: 'lofty', beautiful, pure, are called,
in Abh. S.,
all states of consciousness excepting the disadvantageous and those without
roots ahetuka sobhana-sādhārana-cetasika
are called the mental properties cetasika
common to all lofty consciousness; see: Tab.
Somanassa: lit 'glad-minded-ness'
su+manas+ya gladness, joy; identical with 'mentally pleasant feeling'
cetasikā, sukhā belongs to the feeling-group
see: khandha II, and is enumerated
amongst the 22 abilities indriya. It
may or may not be associated with kammically advantageous consciousness see:
Tab. I. 1-4, 9-12, 18-21, with kammically disadvantageous
consciousness greedy c. ib. 22-25, and with kammically neutral consciousness
ib. 40, 42-45, 57-60, 66-69, 72-76. 81-84, -
somanassa is not identical with
Somanassūpavicāra: 'indulging in gladness';
Sotāpanna: the 'Stream-winner', is the lowest
of the 8 Noble Disciples see: ariya-puggala
Three kinds are to be distinguished: the one 'with 7 rebirths at the utmost'
one 'passing from one noble family to another'
kolankola the one 'germinating only
once more' eka-bījī As it is said e.g.
A. III, 87:
1;If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 mental chains personality-belief,
skeptical doubt, attachment to rules and ritual; see:
samyojana has entered the stream
to Nibbāna, he is no more subject to rebirth in lower worlds, is firmly established,
destined to full enlightenment. After having passed amongst the divine and
human beings only seven times more through the round of rebirths, he puts
an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one with 7 births at the utmost'
2;If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 mental chains. is destined
to full enlightenment, he, after having passed among noble families two or
three times through the round of rebirths, puts an end to suffering. Such
a man is called 'one passing from one noble family to another'
3;If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 mental chains. is destined
to full enlightenment, he, after having only once more returned to human existence,
puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one germinating only once
more' eka-bījī See Sotāpatti-Samyutta
Sotāpannassa angāni: the
'characteristic qualities of a Stream-winner' are 4: unshakable faith towards
the Enlightened One, unshakable faith towards the Doctrine, unshakable faith
towards the Order, and perfect morality. Explained in
S. LV, I,
D. 33, in
S. XLVII, 8 and in Netti-ppakarana these
4 qualities are called sotāpattiyanga.
Sotāpatti: 'Stream-entry'; see:
path and fruition of Stream-entry'; see:
Sotāpattiyanga: the 4 preliminary 'conditions
to Stream-entry' are: companionship with good persons, hearing the Good Law,
wise reflection, living in conformity with the Law
S. LV, 5;
D. 33. Cf.
Space: s. Ākāsa.
Spheres: of existence:
avacara- The 4 immaterial spheres
āyatana : see:
Spiritual abilities: s.
Spontaneously born beings:
Stains: the 3: mala
Standstill: of morality etc.: see: hāna-bhāgiya-sīla.:
b S.: of existence:
Stored-up kamma: katattā see: kamma.
Streams of merit: puññadhārā
Subconscious stream: of existence:
Subha-kinha: or-kinna: s.
Subha-nimitta: 'beautiful or attractive
object of mind'; it may become an inducement to the arising of sense-desire
kāmacchanda see: nīvarana,No
other thing do I know, o Bhikkhus, through which in such a degree sense-desire
may arise, and once arisen will continue to grow, as an attractive object.
Whoso does not wisely consider an attractive object, in him sense-desire will
arise, and once arisen will continue to grow;
A. I, 2.
Subha-ditthi: 'the perception consciousnes or
view of beauty or purity' in what is actually devoid of it asubha
subha-saññā is one of the 4 perversions
Sublime abodes: or States:
Substrata of existence:
Sucarita: 'good conduct', is 3-fold, in body,
speech and mind, and comprises the 10 advantageous courses of action see:
kamma-patha According to
A. X, 61, it has sense-control as its condition.
See D. 33,
A. II, 17; III, 2.
Successive births: kamma ripening in:
Sudassa: & Sudassī: s. foll.
Suddhāvāsa: the 'Pure Abodes', are a group
of 5 heavens belonging to the fine-material world
loka where only the Non-returners see:
anāgāmī are reborn, and in which they attain Arahatship and
ariya-puggala The names of the
inhabitants of these Pure Abodes are: Āviha, Ātappa, Sudassa, Sudassī, Akanittha
Suffering: For the 4 Truths of suffering, see:
sacca further see:
Sugati: 'happy course of existence'; see:
Sukha: pleasant, happy; happiness, pleasure, joy,
bliss. It is one of the three feelings see:
vedanā and may be either bodily or mental. The texts distinguish between
the happiness of the senses and the h. of renunciation
A. II, worldly carnal;sāmisa and unworldly
non-carnal; nirāmisa happiness M.
10. See A. II, ch. VIII. - Happiness is
an indispensable condition for attaining concentration of mind
samādhi, and therefore it is one of
the 5 factors or constituents of the 1st absorption
jhāna and is present up to the 3rd absorption
inclusively.;The mind of the happy one has concentration as its fruit and reward;
A.X,1. -;In him who is filled with happiness,
right concentration has found a foundation; A.X,3.
Sukha-ditthi: 'the perception consciousness
or view of happiness' in what is actually suffering dukkhe
i.e. any form of existence, it is one of the perversions
Sukkha-vipassaka: 'one supported by bare
insight', is the commentarial term for one who, without having attained any
of the meditative absorptions jhāna,
has realized only by the support of insight
vipassanā one or several of the supra-mundane
Vis.M XVIII, he is called
as distinguished from 'one who has tranquillity as vehicle' samathayānika.
Though the primary meaning of sukkha as intended here is as stated above,
subcommentaries e.g. D. Tīkā employ also
the literal meaning of sukkha i.e. 'dry':;His insight is dry, rough,
unmoistened by the moisture of tranquillity meditation.; This justifies a frequent
rendering of this term by 'dry-visioned' or 'having dry insight', which, however,
should not lead to misconceptions about the nature of insight meditation as
being 'dry' or 'merely intellectual', while in fact the development of insight
will produce rapture pīti and a sense
of urgency samvega in the meditator. -
Suñña: adj., Suññatā:
noun: void ness, empty emptiness. As a doctrinal term it refers, in Theravāda,
exclusively to the anattā doctrine,.i.e.
the unsubstantiality of all phenomena:;Void is the world... because it is void
of a self and anything belonging to a self; suññam attena
vā attaniyena vā S. XXXV,
85; also stated of the 5 groups of existence
khandha in the same text. See also
M. 106. - In CNidd. quoted in
Vis.M XXI, 55, it is said:,Eye... mind,
visual objects... mental-objects, visual consciousness... mind-consciousness,
materiality... consciousness, etc., are void of self and anything belonging
to a self; void of permanency and of anything lasting, eternal or immutable..
They are coreless: without a core of permanency, or core of happiness or core
of self.; - In M. 121, the voiding of the
mind of the fermentations, in the attainment of Arahatship, is regarded as
the;fully purified and incomparably highest concept of voidness. - See
Sn. v. 1119;
Pts.M. II: Suñña-kathā;
Vis.M XXI, 53ff.
Suññatānupassanā: 'contemplation of emptiness'
see: prec., is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight
lokuttara, -abilities: see:
mahaggata, -knowledges: see:
Support, Decisive support:
nissaya upanissaya are two
of the 24 conditions see: paccaya
upapīlaka-kamma see: kamma.
veramanī sikkhāpadam samādiyāmi: I take upon myself the vow to abstain
from taking intoxicants and drugs such as wine, liquor, etc. since they lead
to moral carelessness.; This is the wording of the last of the 5 moral rules
see: sikkhāpada binding on all Buddhists.
Suta-mayā paññā: 'knowledge based on learning';