BUDDHIST DICTIONARY

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Tadanga-pahāna: 'overcoming by the opposite', is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming pahāna,.

Tadārammana-citta: 'registering consciousness' see: Tab. I, 40-49, 56, is the last stage in the complete process of cognition citta-vīthi immediately before sinking into the subconscious. It does not occur with the consciousness of the absorptions nor with supra-mundane consciousness, but only with large or distinct objects of the sense-sphere. Cf. vi˝˝āna-kicca.

Taints: Āsava

Talk: low: tiracchāna-kathā

Tanhā: lit. 'thirst': 'craving', is the chief root of suffering, and of the ever-continuing cycle of rebirths.;What, o Bhikkhus, is the origin of suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to ever-fresh rebirth and, bound up with pleasure and lust, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the sensual craving kāma-tanhā the craving for existence bhava-tanhā the craving for non-existence vibhava-tanhā D. 22. T. is the 8th link in the formula of the dependent origination paticcasamuppāda. Cf. sacca.

Corresponding to the 6 sense-objects, there are 6 kinds of craving craving for visible objects, for sounds, odours, tastes, bodily contacts, mental contacts rūpa-, sadda-, gandha-, rasa-, photthabba-, dhamma-tanhā M. 9; D. 15

Corresponding to the 3-fold existence, there are 3 kinds: craving for sensual existence kāma-tanhā for fine-material existence rūpa-tanhā for immaterial existence arūpa-tanhā D. 33

There are 18 'thought-channels of craving' tanhā-vicarita induced internally, and 18 induced externally; and as occurring in past, present and future, they total 108; see A. IV, 199; Vibh., Ch. 17 Khuddakavatthu-Vibhanga.

According to the dependent origination, craving is conditioned by feeling; on this see D. 22 section on the 2nd Truth.

Of craving for existence bhava-tanhā it is said A. X, 62:;No first beginning of the craving for existence can be perceived, o Bhikkhus, before which it was not and after which it came to be. But it can he perceived that craving for existence has its specific condition. I say, o Bhikkhus, that also craving for existence has its condition that feeds it sāharam and is not without it. And what is it? 'Ignorance', one has to reply.; - Craving for existence and ignorance are called;the outstanding causes that lead to happy and unhappy destinies courses of existence; see: Vis.M XVII, 36-42.

The most frequent synonyms of tanhā are rāga and lobha see: mūla .

Tanhā-kkhaya: 'ceasing of craving', is identical with 'ceasing of fermentations' āsavakkhaya and the attainment of perfect Nobility or Arahatship. Cf. ariya-puggala.

Tanhā-nissita-sīla: 'morality based on craving' see: nissaya.

Tathāgata: the 'Perfect One', lit. the one who has 'thus gone', or 'thus come', is an epithet of the Buddha used by him when speaking of himself.

To the often asked questions, whether the Tathāgata still exists after death, or not, it is said e.g. S. XXII, 85, 86 that, in the highest sense paramattha the Tathāgata cannot, even at lifetime, be discovered, how much less after death, and that neither the 5 groups of existence khandha are to be regarded as the Tathāgata, nor can the Tathāgata be found outside these material and mental phenomena. The meaning intended here is that there exist only these ever-changing material and mental phenomena, arising and vanishing from moment to moment, but no separate entity, no personality.

When the commentaries in this connection explain Tathāgata by 'living being' satta they mean to say that here the questioners are using the merely conventional expression, Tathāgata, in the sense of a really existing entity.

Cf. anattā, paramattha, puggala, jīva, satta.

A commentarial treatise on;The Meaning of the Word 'Tathāgata'is included in The All-Embracing Net of Views Brahmajāla Sutta, tr. Bhikkhu Bodhi BPS.

Tathāgata-bala: the 'ten powers of the Perfect One'; see: dasa-bala.

Tathatā: 'Suchness', designates the firmly fixed nature bhāva of all things whatever. The only passage in the Canon where the word occurs in this sense, is found in Kath. 186 see: Guide, p. 83. On the Mahāyana term tathatā see: Suzuki, Awakening of Faith, p. 53f. App..

Tatra-majjhattatā: 'equanimity, equipoise, mental balance' lit., 'remaining here and there in the middle', is the name for a high ethical quality belonging to the sankhāra-khandha see: khandha and is mostly known by the name upekkhā In its widest sense it is associated with all pure consciousness see: Tab. II.. tatra-majjhattatā is called the 'keeping in the middle of all things'. It has as charactcristic that it effects the balance of consciousness and mental properties; as nature function; rasa that it prevents excessiveness and deficiency, or that it puts an end to partiality; as manifestation, that it keeps the proper middle; Vis.M XIV. App..

Tāvatimsa: 'the Thirty-thrce Gods', a class of divine beings in the sense-sphere; see: deva I.

Te-cīvarik'anga: 'practice of the three-rober', is one of the ascetical means for purificaton dhutānga.

Tejo-dhātu: 'fire-element, heat-element'; see: dhātu

Tejo-kasina: 'fire-kasina', is one of the 10 kasina exercises; see: kasina.

Temperature: utu. - For materiality produced by temperature, see: samutthāna

Latent tendencies: anusaya

Terror: awareness of: one of the insight-knowledges; see: visuddhi VI. 3.

Te-vijja: 'one endowed with the threefold higher knowledge'. In Brahmanism means 'knower of the 3 Vedas' tri-vidyā in Buddhism means one who has realised 3 kinds of knowledge, to wit: remembrance of former rebirths, the divine eye, ceasing of all fermentations. For details, see: abhi˝˝ā 4-6. Cf. Tevijjā Sutta, D. 13 WHEEL 57/58.

Theravāda: 'Doctrine of the Elders', is a name of the oldest form of the Buddha's teachings, handed down to us in the Pāli language. According to tradition, its name is derived from the fact of having been fixed by 500 Noble Elders of the Order, soon after the death of the Master.

Theravāda is the only one of the old schools of Buddhism that has survived among those which Mahāyānists have called 'Hinayāna'. It is sometimes called Southern Buddhism or Pāli Buddhism. It is found today in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Chittagong East Bengal. - Cf. Guide, p. 60. - App..

Thīna-middha: 'lethargy and Laziness' or 'lethargy and laziness', constitute the 3rd of the 5 hindrances nīvarana. They may or may not, be associated with greedy consciousness see: Tab. 23. 25, 27, 29 and II.

Thinking: understanding based on: cintāmayapa˝˝ā see: pa˝˝ā.

Thiti-bhāgiya-sīla, Thiti-bhāgiya-samādhi, Thiti-bhāgiya-pa˝˝ā: 'static morality, static concentration, static understanding'; see: hāna-bhāgiya-sīla

thought, Thought-conception: s. vitakka.

Thought: Right: sammā-sankappa see: sacca, magga.

Ties: the 4: gantha

Ti-hetu-patisandhika: s. patisandhi.

Ti-lakkhana: the '3 charactcristies of existence', or signata, are impermanency anicca, suffcring or misery dukkha see: sacca, dukkhatā no-self anattā.

Whether Perfect Ones appear in the world, or whether Perfect Ones do not appear in the world, it still remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and fixed law: that all constructions are impermanent, that all constructions are subject to suffering, that everything is without a self'' A. III, 134.

What do you think, o Bhikkhus: Is materiality rūpa permanent or impermanent? - Impermanent, o Venerable One. - Are feeling vedanā perception sa˝˝ā mental constructions sankhāra and consciousness vi˝˝āna permanent or impermanent? - Impermanent, o Venerable One.

But that which is impermanent, is it something pleasant or painful? - It is painful, o Venerable One.

But, of what is impermanent, painful and subject to change, could it be rightly said, 'This belongs to me, this am I, this is my ego'? - No, Venerable One.

'I'herefore, whatever there is of materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions and consciousness, whether past, present or future, one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, of all these things one should understand, according to reality and true understanding: 'This does not belong to me, this am I not, this is not my ego'S. XXII, 59.

In one who understands eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and all the remaining constructions as impermanent, painful and no-self, in him the mental chains samyojana are dissolved; S. XXXV, 53.

It is the full comprehension of the 3 characteristics by direct meditative experience which constitutes liberating insight. About their relation to the three gateways ot liberation', see: vimokkha I.

For further details, see: anicca, dukkha, anattā, vipassanā.

Literature: The Three Signata, by Prof. O. H. de A. Wijesekera WHEEL 20. - The Three Basic Facts of Existence: I-III WHEEL BPS, Vis.M XX, 13ff. 18ff; XXI, 47f, 67f.

Ti-pitaka: ' The Three Baskets', is the name for the 3 main divisions of the Pāli Canon: the Basket of Discipline Vinaya Pitaka, the Basket of Discourses Sutta Pitaka and the Basket ot Philosophy Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Tiracchāna-kathā: 'low talk', lit. 'beastly talk', is the name in the sutta-texts for the following:;Talk about kings and robbers, ministers and armies, danger and war, eating and drinking, clothes and dwellings, garlands and scents, relations, chariots, villages and markets, towns and districts, women and heroes, street talks, talks by the well, talk about those departed in days gone by, tittle-tattle, talks about world and sea, about gain and loss; A.X, 69 etc..

In the commentaries 4 further kinds are enumerated, thus bringing the number to 32, as mostly counted, namely: talk about sense-enjoyment, self-mortification, eternity and self-annihilation.

Tiracchāna-yoni: 'animal womb'; birth as animal. The animal kingdom belongs to the sense-world see: loka is one of the 4 lower worlds see: apāya and one of the 3 woeful courses of existence see: gati

Tīrana-pari˝˝ā: 'full understanding by investigating'; see: pari˝˝ā.

Ti-ratana: 'Three Jewels' or Three Gems, which by all Buddhists are revered as the most venerable things, are the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Noble Sangha.' i.e.: the Enlightened One; the law of deliverance discovered, realized and proclaimed by him; and the Community of Noble Disciples and those who live in accordance with the Law. - The contemplations of the 3 Jewels belong to the 10 contemplations anussati.

Ti-sarana: 'Threefold Refuge', in which every faithful adherent of the Buddha puts his whole trust, consists in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha see: prec..

The Buddha, or Enlightened One, is the teacher who by himself has discovered, realized and proclaimed to the world the law of deliverance. The Dhamma is the law of deliverance. The Sangha is the community of the disciples, who have realized or are striving to realize the law of deliverance.

The 3-fold Refuge in Pāli, by the uttering of which one may also outwardly profess one's faith, is still the same as in the Buddha's time, namely:

Buddham saranam gacchāmi
Dhammam saranam gacchāmi
Sangham saranam gacchāmi

I take refuge in the Buddha!
I take refuge in the Dhamma!
I take refuge in the Sangha!

Literature: The Threefold Refuge by Nyanaponika Thera WHEEL 76. - Devotion in Buddhism WHEEL 18. Going for Refuge, by Bhikkhu Bodhi WHEEL 282/284 - Khp. Tr. pp. 4ff.

Titthāyatana: the 3 'articles of heretical belief'. which in A. III, 61 are declared as leading to inactivity, are: 1 the belief that all happiness and woe are produced through former kamma prenatal actions; see: kamma; 2 that everything is uncaused; 3 that everything is created by God.

1 is the teaching of Niggantha-Nāthaputta, the leader of the Nigganthas, the modern Jains. The fault with this doctrine is that it does not account for that happiness and woe which either are the result of the present life's good or bad action, or are associated with the corresponding action. 2 is the doctrine of Makkhali Gosāla; see: ditthi

According to the above 3 doctrines, man is not responsible for his actions, so that all moral exertions become useless.

Laziness: thīna, see: thīna-middha

Training: the 3-fold: sikkhā - The steps of: sikkhāpada

Trance: jhāna

Tranquillity: of mind: see: samatha, samatha-vipassanā, bhāvanā, bojjhanga- 'One who has taken t. as his vehicle': samathayānika

Tranquilisation: Overcoming of defilements by way of: see: pahāna

Transference of merit: patti-dāna

Transconstruction: power of: see: iddhi.

Transitoriness: anicca

Treasures: the 7: see: dhana

Tree: Living under a tree is one of the ascetical practices dhutānga.

Truths: the 4 Noble: sacca- 2-fold knowledge of the t.; sacca˝āna.

Turning away: contemplation of the: vivattanupassanā see: vipassanā.

Tusita: a class of divine beings in the sense-plane; see: deva 1.

Twin miracle: yamaka-pātihāriya


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