Tadanga-pahāna: 'overcoming by the opposite',
is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming pahāna,.
Tadārammana-citta: 'registering consciousness'
see: Tab. I, 40-49, 56, is the last stage in the complete
process of cognition citta-vīthi immediately before sinking into the subconscious.
It does not occur with the consciousness of the absorptions nor with supra-mundane
consciousness, but only with large or distinct objects of the sense-sphere.
Talk: low: tiracchāna-kathā
Tanhā: lit. 'thirst': 'craving', is the chief root
of suffering, and of the ever-continuing cycle of rebirths.;What, o Bhikkhus,
is the origin of suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to ever-fresh
rebirth and, bound up with pleasure and lust, now here, now there, finds ever
fresh delight. It is the sensual craving
kāma-tanhā the craving for existence
bhava-tanhā the craving for non-existence
D. 22. T. is the 8th link in the
formula of the dependent origination
Corresponding to the 6 sense-objects, there are 6 kinds of craving craving
for visible objects, for sounds, odours, tastes, bodily contacts, mental
contacts rūpa-, sadda-, gandha-, rasa-, photthabba-, dhamma-tanhā
Corresponding to the 3-fold existence, there are 3 kinds: craving for sensual
existence kāma-tanhā for fine-material
for immaterial existence arūpa-tanhā
There are 18 'thought-channels of craving'
tanhā-vicarita induced internally,
and 18 induced externally; and as occurring in past, present and future, they
total 108; see A. IV, 199;
Vibh., Ch. 17 Khuddakavatthu-Vibhanga.
According to the dependent origination, craving is conditioned by feeling;
on this see D. 22 section on the 2nd
Of craving for existence bhava-tanhā
it is said A. X, 62:;No first beginning of
the craving for existence can be perceived, o Bhikkhus, before which it was
not and after which it came to be. But it can he perceived that craving for
existence has its specific condition. I say, o Bhikkhus, that also craving
for existence has its condition that feeds it sāharam and is not without
it. And what is it? 'Ignorance', one has to reply.; - Craving for existence
and ignorance are called;the outstanding causes that lead to happy and unhappy
destinies courses of existence; see: Vis.M
The most frequent synonyms of tanhā
are rāga and
Tanhā-kkhaya: 'ceasing of craving', is identical
with 'ceasing of fermentations' āsavakkhaya
and the attainment of perfect Nobility or Arahatship. Cf.
Tanhā-nissita-sīla: 'morality based
on craving' see: nissaya.
Tathāgata: the 'Perfect One', lit. the one who
has 'thus gone', or 'thus come', is an epithet of the Buddha used by him when
speaking of himself.
To the often asked questions, whether the Tathāgata still exists after death,
or not, it is said e.g. S. XXII, 85, 86
that, in the highest sense paramattha
the Tathāgata cannot, even at lifetime, be discovered, how much less after
death, and that neither the 5 groups of existence
khandha are to be regarded as the Tathāgata,
nor can the Tathāgata be found outside these material and mental phenomena.
The meaning intended here is that there exist only these ever-changing material
and mental phenomena, arising and vanishing from moment to moment, but no separate
entity, no personality.
When the commentaries in this connection explain Tathāgata by 'living being'
satta they mean to say that here the
questioners are using the merely conventional expression, Tathāgata, in the
sense of a really existing entity.
Cf. anattā, paramattha, puggala, jīva, satta.
A commentarial treatise on;The Meaning of the Word 'Tathāgata'is included
in The All-Embracing Net of Views Brahmajāla Sutta, tr. Bhikkhu Bodhi
Tathāgata-bala: the 'ten powers of
the Perfect One'; see: dasa-bala.
Tathatā: 'Suchness', designates the firmly fixed
nature bhāva of all things whatever.
The only passage in the Canon where the word occurs in this sense, is found
in Kath. 186 see:
Guide, p. 83. On the Mahāyana term
tathatā see: Suzuki, Awakening
of Faith, p. 53f. App..
Tatra-majjhattatā: 'equanimity, equipoise,
mental balance' lit., 'remaining here and there in the middle', is the name
for a high ethical quality belonging to the
see: khandha and is mostly known by
the name upekkhā In its widest sense
it is associated with all pure consciousness see: Tab.
II.. tatra-majjhattatā is called the 'keeping in the middle
of all things'. It has as charactcristic that it effects the balance of consciousness
and mental properties; as nature function; rasa that it prevents excessiveness
and deficiency, or that it puts an end to partiality; as manifestation, that
it keeps the proper middle; Vis.M XIV.
Tāvatimsa: 'the Thirty-thrce Gods', a class
of divine beings in the sense-sphere; see: deva
Te-cīvarik'anga: 'practice of the three-rober',
is one of the ascetical means for purificaton
Tejo-dhātu: 'fire-element, heat-element'; see:
Tejo-kasina: 'fire-kasina', is one of the
10 kasina exercises; see: kasina.
Temperature: utu. - For materiality produced
by temperature, see: samutthāna
Terror: awareness of: one of the insight-knowledges;
see: visuddhi VI. 3.
Te-vijja: 'one endowed with the threefold higher
knowledge'. In Brahmanism means 'knower of the 3 Vedas' tri-vidyā
in Buddhism means one who has realised 3 kinds of knowledge, to wit: remembrance
of former rebirths, the divine eye, ceasing of all fermentations. For details,
see: abhi˝˝ā 4-6. Cf. Tevijjā Sutta,
Theravāda: 'Doctrine of the Elders', is
a name of the oldest form of the Buddha's teachings, handed down to us in the
Pāli language. According to tradition, its name is derived from the fact of
having been fixed by 500 Noble Elders of the Order, soon after the death of
Theravāda is the only one of the old schools of Buddhism that has survived
among those which Mahāyānists have called 'Hinayāna'. It is sometimes called
Southern Buddhism or Pāli Buddhism. It is found today in Sri Lanka, Burma,
Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Chittagong East Bengal. - Cf.
Guide, p. 60. -
Thīna-middha: 'lethargy and Laziness'
or 'lethargy and laziness', constitute the 3rd of the 5 hindrances
nīvarana. They may or may not, be associated
with greedy consciousness see: Tab. 23.
25, 27, 29 and II.
Thinking: understanding based on: cintāmayapa˝˝ā
Thiti-bhāgiya-pa˝˝ā: 'static morality,
static concentration, static understanding'; see:
thought, Thought-conception: s.
Thought: Right: sammā-sankappa
Ties: the 4: gantha
Ti-lakkhana: the '3 charactcristies of existence',
or signata, are impermanency anicca,
suffcring or misery
dukkha see: sacca, dukkhatā no-self
Whether Perfect Ones appear in the world, or whether Perfect Ones do not
appear in the world, it still remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and
fixed law: that all constructions are impermanent, that all constructions are
subject to suffering, that everything is without a self''
A. III, 134.
What do you think, o Bhikkhus: Is materiality
rūpa permanent or impermanent? - Impermanent,
o Venerable One. - Are feeling vedanā
perception sa˝˝ā mental constructions
sankhāra and consciousness
vi˝˝āna permanent or impermanent? - Impermanent,
o Venerable One.
But that which is impermanent, is it something pleasant or painful? - It
is painful, o Venerable One.
But, of what is impermanent, painful and subject to change, could it be
rightly said, 'This belongs to me, this am I, this is my ego'? - No, Venerable
'I'herefore, whatever there is of materiality, feeling, perception, mental
constructions and consciousness, whether past, present or future, one's own
or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, of all these things
one should understand, according to reality and true understanding: 'This does not
belong to me, this am I not, this is not my ego'S.
In one who understands eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and all the remaining
constructions as impermanent, painful and no-self, in him the mental chains
samyojana are dissolved;
S. XXXV, 53.
It is the full comprehension of the 3 characteristics by direct meditative
experience which constitutes liberating insight. About their relation to the
three gateways ot liberation', see: vimokkha
For further details, see: anicca, dukkha, anattā, vipassanā.
Literature: The Three Signata, by Prof. O. H. de
20. - The Three Basic Facts
of Existence: I-III WHEEL
Vis.M XX, 13ff. 18ff; XXI, 47f, 67f.
Ti-pitaka: ' The Three Baskets', is the name
for the 3 main divisions of the Pāli Canon: the Basket of Discipline Vinaya
Pitaka, the Basket of Discourses Sutta Pitaka and the Basket ot Philosophy
Tiracchāna-kathā: 'low talk', lit. 'beastly
talk', is the name in the sutta-texts for the following:;Talk about kings and
robbers, ministers and armies, danger and war, eating and drinking, clothes
and dwellings, garlands and scents, relations, chariots, villages and markets,
towns and districts, women and heroes, street talks, talks by the well, talk
about those departed in days gone by, tittle-tattle, talks about world and
sea, about gain and loss; A.X, 69 etc..
In the commentaries 4 further kinds are enumerated, thus bringing the number
to 32, as mostly counted, namely: talk about sense-enjoyment, self-mortification,
eternity and self-annihilation.
Tiracchāna-yoni: 'animal womb'; birth
as animal. The animal kingdom belongs to the sense-world see:
loka is one of the 4 lower worlds see:
apāya and one of the 3 woeful courses of
existence see: gati
Tīrana-pari˝˝ā: 'full understanding by
investigating'; see: pari˝˝ā.
Ti-ratana: 'Three Jewels' or Three Gems, which
by all Buddhists are revered as the most venerable things, are the Buddha,
the Dhamma and the Noble Sangha.' i.e.: the Enlightened One; the law of deliverance
discovered, realized and proclaimed by him; and the Community of Noble Disciples
and those who live in accordance with the Law. - The contemplations of the
3 Jewels belong to the 10 contemplations anussati.
Ti-sarana: 'Threefold Refuge', in which every
faithful adherent of the Buddha puts his whole trust, consists in the Buddha,
the Dhamma and the Sangha see: prec..
The Buddha, or Enlightened One, is the teacher who by himself has discovered,
realized and proclaimed to the world the law of deliverance. The Dhamma is
the law of deliverance. The Sangha is the community of the disciples, who have
realized or are striving to realize the law of deliverance.
The 3-fold Refuge in Pāli, by the uttering of which one may also outwardly
profess one's faith, is still the same as in the Buddha's time, namely:
Buddham saranam gacchāmi
Dhammam saranam gacchāmi
Sangham saranam gacchāmi
I take refuge in the Buddha!
I take refuge in the Dhamma!
I take refuge in the Sangha!
Literature: The Threefold Refuge by Nyanaponika Thera
76. - Devotion in Buddhism
18. Going for Refuge, by
Bhikkhu Bodhi WHEEL
- Khp. Tr. pp. 4ff.
Titthāyatana: the 3 'articles of heretical
belief'. which in A. III, 61 are declared
as leading to inactivity, are: 1 the belief that all happiness and woe are
produced through former kamma prenatal actions; see: kamma; 2 that everything
is uncaused; 3 that everything is created by God.
1 is the teaching of Niggantha-Nāthaputta, the leader of the Nigganthas,
the modern Jains. The fault with this doctrine is that it does not account
for that happiness and woe which either are the result of the present life's
good or bad action, or are associated with the corresponding action. 2 is the
doctrine of Makkhali Gosāla; see: ditthi
According to the above 3 doctrines, man is not responsible for his actions,
so that all moral exertions become useless.
Laziness: thīna, see: thīna-middha
Training: the 3-fold:
sikkhā - The steps of:
Tranquillity: of mind: see:
bojjhanga- 'One who has taken t.
as his vehicle': samathayānika
Tranquilisation: Overcoming of defilements
by way of: see: pahāna
Transference of merit:
Transconstruction: power of: see:
Treasures: the 7: see:
Tree: Living under a tree is one of the ascetical
Truths: the 4 Noble:
sacca- 2-fold knowledge of the t.;
Turning away: contemplation of the: vivattanupassanā
Tusita: a class of divine beings in the sense-plane;
see: deva 1.