Vācā: 'speech'. On right sp., see:
magga 3, sacca
IV.3. - Low talk, see: tiracchāna-kathā.
Vacī-kamma: 'verbal action'; see: kamma,
Vacī-sankhāra: 'verbal kamma-construction',
or 'verbal function'.
1: For verbal kamma-construction, see:
sankhāra I. 1.
2: For verbal function of mind, i.e. thought-conception and discursive
thinking, see: sankhāra I. 2.
Vanishing: Contemplation of:
vayānupassanā is one of the 18 chief
kinds of insight vipassāna.
Vanishing and reappearing:
knowledge of the v. and r. of beings according to kamma, is identical
with the divine eye see: abhi˝˝ā 5.
Vāritta-sīla: 'morality consisting in avoiding'
evil things, as distinguished from 'morality consisting in performing' good
things. See caritta-varitta.
Vis.M IV speaks of 5 kinds of m., which anyone who wishes to develop the
absorptions jhāna should acquire first
of all, with regard to the 1st absorption, namely: mastery in adverting to
it āvajjana-vasī in entering
it samāpajjana-vasī in determining it
adhitthāna-vasī in rising therefrom
vutthāna-vasī in retrospection paccavekkhana-vasī
If wherever, whenever, and for whatever duration desired, one enters the
1st absorption, and at one's entering it, no slowness is experienced, this
is called mastery in entering the absorption, etc. In an analogous way, the
4 remaining kinds are to be explained; Vis.M
IV, 131f; XXIII, 27ff..
Vatta: 1. 'round', 2. 'round of rebirths'.
1: With reference to the dependent origination
Vis.M XVII speaks of 3 rounds: the kamma
round kamma-vatta comprising the
kammic-constructions and the kammaprocess 2nd and 10th links; the round of
comprising ignorance, craving and clinging 1st, 8th and 9th links; the round
of results vipāka-vatta
comprising consciousness, mind and materiality, 6 bases, contact, feeling
3rd-7th links. Cf. paticcasamuppāda
2 round of rebirth = samsāra
Vatthu: 'physical base', i.e. the 6 physical organs
on which the mental process is based, are the 5 physical sense-organs and,
according to the Com., the heart
hadaya-vatthu, as the 6th. This
6th vatthu must not be confounded with
the 6th āyatana which is a collective
name for all consciousness whatever. - App..
Vatthu-kāma: 'objective sensuality', the 5
sense-objects; see: kāma.
Vavatthāna: 'determining', defining. In its
application to insight meditation, this term occurred first in
Pts.M. I, p. 53; but in a verbal form,
as a past participle, already in M. 111:
tyassa dhammā anupada-vavatthitā honti,these
things the mental properties were determined by him i.e. Sāriputta successively;
see: Abh. St., p. 54. In
Vis.M XX, 130, it is said: 'The determining
of the truth of suffering is effected with the determining of mind-and-body
in the purification of view see: visuddhi
III. The determining of the truth of origination is effected with the discerning
of conditions in the purification by transcending doubt see:
visuddhi IV. The determining of the truth
of the path is effected by emphasis on the right
path in the purification by knowledge and vision
of what is path and not-path
see: visuddhi. Thus the determining
of the 3 truths suffering, origin, path has
been first effected by means of mundane lokiya
knowledge only.; - See sammasana, visuddhi.
For the determining of the 4 physical elements, see: dhātuvavatthāna.
Vayānupassanā: 'contemplation of vanishing',
is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight vipassanā.
Vāyo-dhātu: 'wind-element'; see:
Vāyo-kasina: 'wind-kasina', is one of the
kasina exercises kasina.
Vedanā: 'feeling', sensation, is the 2nd of the
5 groups of existence see: khandha
II. According to its nature, it may be divided into 5 classes: 1 bodily pleasant
feeling kāyikā sukhā-vedanā
= sukha 2 bodily painful
feeling kāyikā dukkhā-vedanā
= dukkhā 3 mentally pleasant feeling cetasikā sukhā-vedanā
= somanassa 4 mentally painful feeling cetasikā dukkhā-vedanā =
domanassa 5 indifferent or neutral adukkha-m-asukhā vedanā = upekkhā.
With regard to the 6 senses, one distinguishes 6 kinds of feeling: feeling
associated with seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily contact and mental
contact. The textual wording of it is 'feeling arisen through visual contact'
cakkhu-samphassajā vedanā a href=dic2-abbrev.htm#S. see: XXII, 55;
D. 22, etc.
Feeling is one of the 7 mental properties inseparably associated with all consciousness
whatever, see: nāma In the formula of the dependent origination
is the condition for the arising of craving tanhā
The above-mentioned 5 kinds of feeling are enumerated amongst the 22 abilities
indriya. - See
M. 59; Contemplation of Feeling Vedanā
Samyutta, by Nyanaponika Thera WHEEL
Vedanānupassanā: 'contemplation of feeling',
is one of the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness
Vehapphala: is the name of a class of divine
beings in the fine-material world; deva.
vacī-kamma see: kamma.
Verbal functions of mind:
Vesārajja: 'self-confidence' of a Buddha is
fourfold. He is confident: 1. to have attained to a perfect Enlightenment of
which it cannot be said that it omits anything essential to it; 2. to have
destroyed all fermentations āsava leaving
none that can be said to be undestroyed by him; 3. that what were declared
by him as obstacles to liberation are undeniably such; 4. that his teaching
fulfils its purpose of actually leading to final liberation from suffering.
See A. IV, 8; VII, 58;
Vibhajja-vāda: 'analytical or discriminating
doctrine' is an early name for the original Buddha doctrine, called Theravāda.
- The term vibhajja-vādī occurs in
M. 99 and
A. X, 94, though not in the sense of a separate
school, but as a characteristic of the Buddha himself:;Now, by blaming what
is blamable and praising what is praiseworthy, the Blessed One is a 'discriminating
teacher' vibhajja-vadī and is not one-sided in his teaching;
A. X, 94.
Buddhaghosa, in the introduction to his Com.
on the Kathāvatthu, says that in Asoka's time, when the Sangha prospered, many
heretics took ordination as Buddhist Bhikkhus but continued to spread their
wrong doctrines. For purifying the Sangha, Asoka, together with the venerable
Moggaliputtatissa, summoned assembly of the Bhikkhus. When each of the assembled
was individually questioned by the king about what the Buddha taught, those
who said that he was an eternalist sassata-vadī etc. were expelled.
The genuine Bhikkhus replied that the Buddha was a vibhajja-vadī
an 'analyst' or 'discriminating teacher'; and when, on the king's question,
Moggaliputtatissa confirmed that this was the correct view, those Bhikkhus
were admitted to the Uposatha assembly of the Sangha, and from their midst
the participants of the 3rd Council at Pataliputta were selected. - See Mahāvamsa,
tr. by Wilh. Geiger, Ch. V, v. 268f.
Vibhava ditthi: =
Vibhava-tanhā: 'craving for non-existence',
or for self-annihilation; see: tanhā.
Vicāra: 'discursive thinking'; see:
Vicikicchā: 'sceptical doubt', is one of the
5 mental hindrances nīvarana, and
one of the 3 mental chains samyojana,
which disappear for ever at Stream-entry, the first stage of Nobility see:
ariya-puggala As a fetter, it
refers to sceptical doubt about the Master the Buddha, the Teaching, the Sangha,
and the training; about things past and future, and conditionality
Dhs 1004; cf. A. X, 71. It also applies
to uncertainty whether things are advantageous or not, to be practised or not,
of high or low value, etc. According to
Vis.M XIV, 177,
vicikicchā is the lack of desire to
think things out i.e. to come to a conclusion; vigata-cikicchā
desiderative to Í cit to think; it has the
nature of wavering, and its manifestation is indecision and a divided attitude;
its proximate cause is unwise attention to matters of doubt. It is associated
with one of the 2 classes of disadvantageous consciousness rooted in confusion
Tab. I, No. 32. - See also
1, sacca IV, 1. - For wrong view, see:
Vigata-paccaya: 'disappearance', is one
of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Vihāra: 'abode' There are 3 abodes: the divine
abode dibba-vihāra the divine
abode brahma-vihāra, the noble
abode ariya-vihāra See
A. III, 63; D.
Vijjā: 'higher knowledge', gnosis. For the 3-fold
k., see: abhi˝˝ā and te-vijjā
Vijjā-carana: knowledge and conduct'. This
expression occurs in those passages in the suttas where the qualities of a
Buddha are described, namely: Truly, the Blessed One is holy, is fully enlightened,
perfect in knowledge and conduct...; According to
Vis.M VII, 1 and
D. 3, knowledge
vijjā refers here either to the 3-fold knowledge
see: te-vijjā or to the 8 kinds
of knowledge, namely: the 6 higher spiritual powers
vipassanā, and magical power
iddhi, whilst conduct
carana refers to 15 things: moral restraint,
watching over the sense-doors, moderation in eating, wakefulness, faith, moral
shame, Fear of Wrongdoing, great learning, energy, awareness or mindfulness,
understanding and the 4 absorptions.
Vikkhambhana-pahāna: 'overcoming by
repression' or 'suspension', is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming
Vikubbanā-iddhi: the 'power of transconstruction',
is one of the magical abilities iddhi.
Vimamsā: 'investigation, inquiry, pondering',
is one of the 4 roads to power iddhi-pāda
and one of the 4 factors of predominance see:
Vimokkha: 'liberation' deliverance. I. the 3;
II. the 8.
I. The 3 liberations are: 1. the conditionless or signless liberation
animitta-v 2. the desireless liberation apanihita-v.
the emptiness or void liberation su˝˝atā
-v They are also called 'the triple gateway to liberation'
Vis.M XXI, 66ff, as they are three different
approaches to the paths of Nobility. - See
visuddhi VI, 8. Cf. Vis XXI, 6ff,
121ff; Pts.M. II. Vimokkha-Kathā.
1.;Whosoever being filled with determination
adhimokkha, considers all constructions
as impermanent anicca such a one attains
the conditionless liberation. 2. Whosoever being filled with tranquillity,
considers all constructions as painful dukkha
such a one attains the desireless liberation. 3. Whosoever being filled with
understanding, considers all constructions as without a self
anattā such a one attains the emptiness
liberation; Vis.M XXI, 70 =
Pts.M. II, p. 58.
1 and 2 are mentioned and explained in M.
43, under the name of deliverances of mind
ceto-vimutti. - 2 and 3 appear in
Dhs 344ff, 353ff in the section on supra-mundane
consciousness see Atthasālini Tr.,
II. The 8 liberations attha vimokkha
occur frequently in the texts A. VIII, 66;
D. 16, etc. and are described as follows:
There are 8 liberations, o Bhikkhus. Which are these?
1 ''Whilst remaining in the fine-material sphere rūpī one perceives
material forms: this is the first liberation.
2;Not perceiving corporcal forms on one's own person, one perceives corporcal
forms externally: this is the 2nd liberation.
3 ''By thinking of the beautiful, one is filled with confidence: this is
the 3rd liberation.
4;Through the total overcoming of the materiality-perceptions, the vanishing
of the reflex-perceptions, and the non-attention to the multiformity-perceptions,
with the idea 'Unbounded is space', one reaches the sphere of unbounded space
abides therein: this is the 4th liberation.
5;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of unbounded space, and with
the idea 'Unbounded is consciousness', one reaches the sphere of unbounded
and abides therein: this is the 5th liberation.
6;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of unbounded consciousness,
and with the idea 'Nothing is there', one reaches the sphere of nothingness
āki˝ea˝˝āyatana and abides therein: this is the 6th liberation.
7;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of nothingness, one reaches
the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception n'eva-sa˝˝ā
-nāsa˝˝āyatana and abides therein: this is the 7th liberation.
8;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception,
one reaches the ceasing of perception and feeling see:
nirodha-samāpatti this is the
These, o Bhikkhus, are the 8 kinds of liberation
For 1-3, see: abhibhāyatana
for 4-7, see: jhāna for 8, see: nir
By 3 is meant the attainment of the fine-material absorptions
jhāna by means of concentrating the mind
on perfectly pure and bright colours as objects of the kasina. According to
Pts.M. this mental state is produced also
by concentrating the mind on the 4 sublime states, i.e. all-embracing kindness,
Pity, sympathetic joy and equanimity, in consequence of which allbeings appear
perfectly pure and glorified, and thus the mind turns to the beautiful.
See Pts.M. II, Vimokkha-kathā;
Atthasālini Tr., p. 255;
Vimutti: 'deliverance', is of 2 kinds: deliverance
of mind ceto-vimutti and
deliverance through understanding pa˝˝ā-vimutti.
'Deliverance of mind', in the highest sense, is that kind of concentration
samādhi which is bound up with the
path of Arahatship arahatta-magga
deliverance through understanding' is the knowledge ˝āna
bound up with the fruition of Arahatship arahatta-phala
Cf. A. V, 142.
There are also 5 kinds of deliverance, identical with the 5 kinds of overcoming
Vinipāta: 'world of suffering', is another name
for the 4 woeful courses duggati, see:
gati of existence, and for the 4 lower
The Stream-Winner sotāpanna is
no longer subject to rebirth in them avinipāta-dhamma.
Vi˝˝āna: 'consciousness', is one of the 5 groups
of existence aggregates or clusters;khandha,
one of the 4 nutriments āhāra, the 3rd
link of the dependent origination
paticcasamuppāda, the 5th in the sixfold division of elements
Viewed as one of the 5 groups khandha
it is inseparably linked with the 3 other mental groups feeling, perception
and constructions and furnishes the bare cognition of the object, while the
other 3 contribute more specific functions. Its ethical and kammic character,
and its greater or lesser degree of intensity and clarity, are chiefly determined
by the mental constructions associated with it.
Just like the other groups of existence, consciousness is a flux
vi˝˝āna-sotā, stream of c.' and
does not constitute an abiding mind-substance; nor is it a transmigrating entity
or soul. The 3 characteristies see: ti-lakkhana
impermanence, suffering and no-self, are frequently
applied to it in the texts e.g., in the Anattalakkhana Sutta,
S.XXII, 59. The Buddha often stressed that;apart
from conditions, there is no arising of consciousness' M 38; and all these
statements about its nature hold good for the entire range of consciousness,
be it;past, future or presently arisen, gross or subtle, in oneself or external,
inferior or lofty, far or near; see:
According to the 6 senses it divides into 6 kinds, viz. eye or visual consciousness
cakkhu-v etc. About
the dependent arising of these 6 kinds of consciousness,
Vis.M XV, 39 says: 'Conditioned through
the eye, the visible object, light and attention, visual-consciousness arises.
Conditioned through the ear, the audible object, the ear-passage and attention,
ear-consciousness arises. Conditioned, through the nose, the olfactive object,
air and attention, nose-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the tongue,
the gustative object, humidity and attention, tongue-consciousness arises.
Condlitioned through the body, bodily contact, the earth-element and attention,
body-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the subconscious mind bhavanga-mano
the mental-object and attention, mind-consciousness arises
The Abhidhamma literature distinguishes 89 crasses of consciousness, being
either kammically advantageous, disadvantageous or neutral, and belonging either
to the sense-sphere, the fine-material or the immaterial sphere, or to supra-mundane
consciousness. See Table I.
Vi˝˝āna-kicca: 'functions of consciousness',
as exercised within a process of consciousness or cognitive series cittavīthi
In the Abhidhamma Com. and
Vis.M XIV the following functions are
mentioned: rebirth patisandhi subconsciousness
bhavanga, directing āvajjana
seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, body-consciousness; recciving sampaticchana
investigating santīrana determining votthapana, impulsion
javana registering tadārammana dying
A single unit of sense-perception e.g. visual consciousness, being conditioned
through a sense-organ and its corresponding object, forms in reality an extremely
complex process, in which all the single phases of consciousness follow one
upon another in rapid succession, while performing their respective functions,
As soon as a visible object has entered the range of vision, it acts on
the sensitive eye-organ cakkhu-pasāda
and conditioned thereby an excitation of the subconscious stream
bhavanga-sota takes place.
As soon, however, as subconsciousness is broken off, the functional mind-element
see: Tab. I, 70, grasping the object and breaking
through the subconscious stream, performs the function of 'adverting' the mind
towards the object āvajjana.
Immediately thereupon there arises at the eye-door, and based on the sensitive
eye-organ, the visual-consciousness, while performing the function of 'seeing'
dassana... Immediately thereafter there arises the mind-element Tab
I, 39, 55 performing the function of 'receiving' sampaticchana the
object of that consciousness.
''Immediately thereafter there arises... the mind-consciousness-element
Tab. I, 40, 41, 56, while 'investigating' santirana
the object received by the mind-element...
Immediately thereafter there arises the functional, rootless mind-consciousness-element
Tab. I, 71, accompanied by indifference, while performing
the function of 'determining' votthapana the object. ..
Now, if the object is large, then immediately afterwards there flash forth
6 or 7 'impulse moments' javana-citta, constituted by one of the 8 advantageous,
or 12 disadvantageous, or 9 functional classes of consciousness
Tab. I, 1-8; 22-23; 72-80.
''Now, if at the end of the impulse moments, the object at the five-sense
doors is very large, and at the mind-door clear, then there arises, once or
twice, one of the 8 root-accompanied, kamma-resultant classes of consciousness
Tab. I, 42-49 of the sense-sphere, or one of the 3
rootless kamma-resultant mind-consciousness-elements
Tab. I, 40, 41, 56. Because this
consciousness after the vanishing of the impulse moments, possesses the ability
continuing with the object of the subconsciousness, taking the object of the
subconsciousness as its own object, therefore it is called 'registering'
tadārarmmana lit. 'that object', or 'having that as object';
Vis.M XIV, 115ff.
If, however, the sense-object is weak, then it reaches merely the stage
of 'impulsion'javana or of 'determining'
votthapana if very weak, only an excitation ot the subconsciousness
The proeess of the inner or mind-consciousness, i.e. without participation
of the 5 physical senses, is as follows: in the case that the mind-objeet entering
the mind-door is distinct, then it passes through the stages of 'directing
at the mind-door' manodvārāvajjana the 'impulse stage' and the 'registering
stage', before finally sinking into the subconscious stream. -
Literature: Aids to the Abhidhamma Philosophy, by Dr. C.B Dharmasena with
colour chart of the Cognitive Series; WHEEL
63/64. - The Psychology and Philosophy of Buddhism, by Dr. W. F. Javasuriya
Buddhist Missionary Socy., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Vi˝˝āna˝cāyatana: 'sphere of Infinite
consciousn is a name for the 2nd meditiative absorption in the immateria sphere
see: jhāna 6.
Vi˝˝āna-tthiti: 'abodes or supports of
consciousness'. The texts describe 7 such abodes e.g.
A. VII, 41:
1: There are beings who are different in body and different in perception,
such as men, some divine beings, and some beings living in states of suffering
see: apāya. This is the 1st abode of
2: There are beings who are different in body but equal in perception,
such as the first-born gods of the Brahmaworld see:
deva II. This is the 2nd abode of consciousness.
3: There are beings who are equal in body but different in perception,
such as the Radiant Gods ābhassara-deva This is the 3rd abode of consciousness.
4: There are beings who are equal in body and equal in perception, such
as the All-illuminating Gods subhakinha-deva
This is the 4th abode of consciousness.
5: There are beings... reborn in the sphere of Infinite space. This is
the 5th abode of consciousness.
6: There are beings... reborn in the sphere of Infinite consciousness.
This is the 6th abode of consciousness.
7: There are beings... reborn in the sphere of nothingness. This is the
7th abode of consciousnes
About the 3 last-named spheres, see: jhāna
5-7. Cf. sattāvāsa.
In D. 33 there are mentioned 4
vi˝˝āna-tthiti apparently in
the sense of 'bases' of consciousness, namely: materiality, feeling, perception,
mental constructions, which in see: XXII,
53 are further explained.
Vi˝˝atti: lit. 'making known' 'intimation',
is an Abhidhamma term for bodily expression kāya-vi˝˝atti
and verbal expression vacī-vi˝˝atti
both belonging to the materiality-group. They are produced by the co-nascent
intention, and are therefore, as such, purely physical and not to be confounded
with kamma, which as such is something mental. Cf.
Kath. 80, 100, 101, 103, 194 see:
Guide V. -
One speaks of 'bodily expression', because it makes known an intention by
means of bodily movement, and can itself be understood by the bodily movement
which is said to be material.
'Verbal expression' is so called because it makes known an intention by
means of a speech-produced noise; Vis.M
Vipacita˝˝u: or vipa˝cita˝˝u 'one who
realizes the truth after explanation.' Thus is called one who realizes the
truth only after detailed explanation of that which already had been said to
him in a concise form. Cf. ugghatita˝˝u.
Vipāka: 'kamma-result' or 'effect of action', is
any kammically morally neutral mental phenomenon e.g. bodily pleasant or painful
feeling, sense-consciousness, etc., which is the result of advantageous or
disadvantageous intentional action kamma through body, speech or mind, done
either in this or some previous life. Totally wrong is the belief that, according
to Buddhism, everything is the result of previous action. Never, for example,
is any kammically advantageous or disadvantageous intentional action the result
of former action, being in reality itself kamma. On this subject see:
Tab. I; Fund II. Cf.
A. III, 101; Kath. 162
Guide, p. 80.
Kamma-produced kammaja or kamma-samutthāna
material things are never called kamma-vipāka as this term may be applied
only to mental phenomena.
Vipāka-paccaya: 'kamma-result condition'
is one of the 24 conditions paccaya,.
Vipallāsa: 'perversions' or 'distortions'. -
''There are 4 perversions which may be either of perception
sa˝˝ā-vipallāsa of consciousness
citta v or of views
ditthi-v And which are these four?
To regard what is impermanent anicca
as permanent; what is painful dukkha
as pleasant or happiness-yielding; what is without a self
anattā as a self; what is impure ugly:
asubha as pure or beautiful'' A. IV,
49. - See Manual of Insight, by Ledi Sayadaw
Of the perversions, the following are eliminated by the 1st
sotāpatti the perversions of perception,
consciousness and views, that the impermanent is permanent and what is not
a self is a self; further, the perversion of views that the painful is pleasant,
and the impure is pure. By the 3rd path-knowledge
anāgāmitā are eliminated: the perversions of perception and consciousness
that the impure is pure. By the 4th path-knowledge
arahatta are eliminated the perversions of perception and consciousness
that the painful is pleasant; Vis.M XXII,
of change' of all things, is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight
Vipassanā: 'insight', is the
intuitive light flashing forth and exposing the truth of the impermanency,
the suffering and the impersonal and unsubstantial nature of all material
and mental phenomena of existence. It is insight-understanding vipassanā-pa˝˝ā that is the decisive liberating
factor in Buddhism, though it has to be developed along with the 2 other trainings
in morality and concentration. The culmination of insight practice see:
visuddhi VI leads directly to the stages
of Nobility see: visuddhi VII.
Insight is not the result of a mere intellectual understanding, but is won
through direct meditative observation of one's own bodily and mental processes.
In the commentaries and the Vis.M, the
sequene in developing insight-meditation is given as follows: 1. discernment
of the material rūpa. of the mental
nāma. contemplation of both nāma-rūpa i.e. of their pairwise occurrence
in actual events, and their interdependence, 4. both viewed as conditioned
application of the dependent origination,
paticcasamuppāda 5. application
of the 3 characteristics impermanency, etc. to mind-and-body-cum-conditions.
The stages of gradually growing insight are described in the 9 insight-knowledges
constituting the 6th stage of purification: beginning with the 'knowledge of
rise and fall' and ending with the 'adaptation to Truth'. For details, see
visuddhi VI and
Eighteen chief kinds of insight-knowledge or principal insights, mahā-vipassanā
are listed and described in Vis.M XXII,
113: 1: contemplation of impermanence
aniccānupassanā 2: of suffering
3: of no self
anattānupnupassanā 4: of aversion nibbidānupassanā
5: of detachment
6: of ceasing
7: of abandoning
8: of waning khayānupassanā
9: of vanishing vayānupassanā 10:
of change viparināmānupassanā
11: of the unconditioned or signless,
apanihitānupassanā 13: of emptiness su˝˝atāupassanā
14: insight into phenomena which is higher understanding
15: knowledge and vision according to reality yathā-bhūta-˝ānadassana
16: experience of Danger or danger, ādīnavānupassanā
17: reflecting contemplation patisankhānupassanā 18: contemplation of
turning away vivattanānupassanā.
Through these 18, the adverse ideas and views are overcome, for which reason
this way of overcoming is called 'overcoming by the opposite'
tadanga-pahāna overcoming this
factor by that. Thus 1 dispels the idea of permanence. 2 the idea of happiness,
3 the idea of self, 4 lust, 5 greed, 6 origination, 7 grasping, 8 the idea
of compactness, 9 kamma-accumulation, 10 the idea of lastingness, 11 the conditions,
12 delight, 13 adherence, 14 grasping and adherence to the idea of substance,
15 attachment and adherence, 17 thoughtlessness, 18 dispels entanglement and
Insight may be either mundane lokiya
or supra-mundane lokuttara. supra-mundane
insight is of 3 kinds: 1 joined with one of the 4 supra-mundane
paths, 2 joined with one of the fruitions of
these paths, 3 regarding the ceasing, or rather
suspension, of consciousness see:
Literature: Manual of Insight, by Ledi Sayadaw WHEEL
of Insight, both by Mahāsi Sayadaw BPS.
The Experience of Insight, by Joseph Goldstein
of insight'; see: visuddhi.
Vipatti: 'aberration' or 'deviation', may be:
deviation from morality sīla-vipatti
or deviation from understanding ditthivipatti.
To deviate in deeds, or in words, or in both actions and words: this is
called deviation from morality.
'Food and offerings are useless, there is no fruit and result of good and
bad actions, there are no such things as this and the next life'. Such
wrong views are called deviation from understanding.;
Pug. 67, 68
is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.
Virāga: 'disillusion' or 'fading away', detachment;
absence of lust, dispassionateness. Appears frequently together with
nirodha 'cessation' 1 as a name for Nibbāna,
2 in the contemplations a forming the 4th tetrad in the exercises in awareness
or mindfulness of breathing see: ānāpānasati
14, b of the 18 principal insights No. 5; see:
According to Com., it may mean 1 the
momentary destruction of phenomena, or 2 the ultimate 'fading away', i.e. Nibbāna.
In the aforementioned two contemplations, it means the understanding of both,
and the path attained by such understanding.
Virāgānupassanā: see: prec.
Virati: the 3 'abstentions' or abstinences, are:
abstention from wrong speech, wrong bodily action and wrong livelihood; corresponding
to right speech, action and livelihood of the 8-fold
path see: magga
3-5. By abstention is not simply meant the non-occurrence of the evil things
in question, but the deliberate abstaining therefrom, whenever occasion arises.
They belong to the 'secondary' not constant mental concomitants obtaining in
lofty consciousness see: Tab. II.. Cf.
Viriya: 'energy', lit. 'virility', 'manliness'
or 'heroism' from vīra man, hero; Lat. vir cf. virtus
is one of the 5 spiritual abilities and powers see:
bala one of the 7 factors of enlightenment
see: bojjhanga and identical with
right effort of the 8-fold path see:
magga For further explanations, see:
Viriya-sambojjhanga: 'energy as link
to Awakening', is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment
Virtue: see: sīla
Visesa-bhāgiya-sīla: -samādhi-Pa˝˝ā : morality concentration,
connected with progress'. For details, see: hānabhāgiya-sīla.
Visible object: see:
Visuddhi: 'purification', purity. The '7 stages
of purification' satta-visuddhi
form the substructure of Upatissa's Vimutti-Magga The
path To Freedom, preserved only in Chinese,
as well as of Buddhaghosa's monumental work,
The path of Purification, based on the former
The only place in the Canon where these 7 kinds of purification are mentioned
is M. 24,,The Simile of the Stage-coach;
see: 'path', ž64, wherein their purpose
and goal are illustrated. There it is said that the real and ultimate goal
does not consist in purification of morality, or of mind, or of view, etc.,
but in total deliverance and ceasing. Now, just as one mounts the first coach
and travels to the second coach, then mounts the second coach and travels with
it to the third coach, etc., in exactly the same way the goal of I the purification
of morality sila-visuddhi is
II the purification of mind citta-visuddhi
its goal: III the purification of view
ditthi-visuddhi its goal: IV the
purification by overcoming doubt kankhāvitarana-visuddhi
its goal: V the purification by knowledge and vision of what is
path and not-path
its goal: VI the purification by knowledge and vision of the
its goal: VII the purification of knowledge and vision
the goal of this purification is deliverance freed from all clinging.
I: Purification of morality sīla-visuddhi
consists of the 4-fold purity of morality
restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code pātimokkhasamvara-sīla
purity of livelihood ājīvapārisuddhi-sīla
morality with regard to the 4 requisites
Vis.M XVIII. On these 4 terms, see:
sīla- In the case of a layman, it entails
the observance of whatever moral rules 5 or more he has taken upon himself.
II: Purification of mind citta-visuddhi
is a name for the 8 attainments = absorptions:
jhāna, as well as for neighbourhood-concentration
III: By purification of view ditthi-visuddhi
is meant the understanding, according to reality, of mind and materiality
nāma-rūpa... which is founded on unconfusedness
understanding as base, and which
in many ways determines mind and materiality after overcoming all belief in
a persollality attā self, ego..; ib..
IV:By purification by overcoming doubt
is meant the understanding which, by grasping the conditions of this mind and
materiality, has escaped from all doubt with regard to the 3 times past, present,
future.; ib. XIX
V: By purification by knowledge and vision of what is
path and not-path
is meant that understanding which knows the right
path from the wrong
path: 'This is the right
path, that the wrong
In order to attain this 5th stage of purification, one at first should develop
methodical insight naya-vipassanā
i.e. through contemplation of the 5 groups of existence
khandha. For whosoever does not yet possess
a perfectly developed insight, to him such phenomena as effulgence of light,
etc. see below, arising during insight, may become impediments in the 3 kinds
of full understanding here considered see:
'As soon as the many ways and characteristics of the 4 Truths
sacca and the dependent origination
paticcasamuppāda have become
clear to the meditating disciple, he says to himself: Thus do these things
never before arisen arise, and having arisen they disappear again. Thus do
the constructions of existence ever and again arise as something quite new.
But not only are they something new, they are moreover also of limited duration,
like a dew-drop at sunrise, like a bubble, like a line drawn with a stick in
the water, like a mustard seed placed on the point of an arrow, or like a flash
of lightning. Also as something unsubstantial and empty do they appear, as
jugglery, as a mirage. Merely something subject to vanishing arises,
and having arisen disappears again.
During such insight practice, however, may arise the 10 imperfections or
defilements of insight vipassanūpakkilesa
effulgence of light obhāsa knowledge
adhimokkha energy paggaha awareness
upatthāna delight nikanti - See
Vis.M XX, 105f.
Excepting the last one, 'delight', they are not imperfections or
defilements in themselves, but may become a basis for them through the
arising of pride or delight or by a wrong conclusion that one of the Noble
paths has been attained. He, however, who is
watchful and experienced in insight practice, will know that these states of
mind do not indicate attainment of the true path,
but are only symptoms or concomitants of insight meditation.
Thus far the meditating disciple has determined 3 of the truths, namely
while determining the material and mental phenomena he has, through purification
of view ditthi-visuddhi determined
the 'truth of suffering'. While grasping the conditions he has, through purification
by overcoming doubt kankhā-vitarana-visuddhi
determined the 'truth of the origin of suffering'. While determining the right
path, he has, through purification by knowledge
and vision of what is path and not-path
determined the 'truth of the path' leading to
the ceasing of suffering
VI: Purification by knowledge and vision of the
is the insight perfected in 8 kinds of knowledge, together with the 9th knowledge,
the 'knowledge adapting itself to truth'.
By the 8 kinds of knowledge are here meant the following, which are freed
from defilements, follow the right process, and are considered as insight,
1. knowledge consisting in contemplation of rise and fall
2. in contemplation of dissolution
3. in awareness of terror or the fearful bhayatūpatthānā-˝āna,
4. in experience of Danger
5. in contemplation of aversion
6. in the desire for deliverance
7. in reflecting contemplation
8. in equanimity regarding all constructions of existence
is followed by
9. in adaptation to truth saccānulomika-˝āna.
1: Consists in the meditative observation of the 3 characteristics of existence
impermanence, suffering, no self in one's
own bodily and mental processes. As long as the mind is still disturbed by
the 10 imperfections see: V, the 3 characteristics will not become fully clear
in their true nature. Only when the mind is free from these imperfections
can the characteristics be observed clearly.
2: When through such repeated practice, knowledge and awareness or mindfulness
have grown keen and the bodily and mental constructions become apparent quickly,
at that stage the phase of dissolution of these constructions will become
Consciousness with e.g. materiality as its object arises and dissolves.
Having reflected on that object, he contemplates the dissolution of reflecting
consciousness.; Pts.M. I, 57, quoted
in Vis.M XXI, 11.
The 8 blessings of this knowledge are: abandoning the belief in eternal
existence bhava-ditthi giving
up attachment to life, constant right application of mind to meditative endeavour,
a purified livelihood, overcoming of anxiety, absence of fear, acquisition
of forbearance and gentleness, conquest of discontent and sensual delight
Vis.M XXI, 28.
3: Knowledge consisting in awareness of terror or fearfulness is the seeing
of terror in the conditions as well as the continuity of existence. For whoso
considers the constructions as impermanent, to him the conditions of existence
i.e. the kammic-constructions producing ever new existence appear as terror,
as driving towards death. Whoso considers the constructions as
misery, to him the continuity of existence
appears as terror, as something oppressive. Whoso considers the constructions
as impersonal, to him the kammaconstructions, as well as the continuity of
existence, appear as terror, as an empty village, as a mirage, etc.
4: experience of Danger or danger is
another aspect of the awareness of terror:,The origin of existence is terror...
continuance of existence is terror... arising is suffering', such understanding
in the awareness of terror is the knowledge of
misery. 'Non-arising is bliss', this is knowledge of the peaceful state
Pts.M. I, 59; that is, the no-more-arising
is safety, is happiness, is Nibbāna.
5: Contemplation of aversion means: aversion for all constructions as terror,
therefore its name 'awareness of terror' has come into use. Because it has
made known the misery of all these constructions,
therefore it has received the name of 'experience of Danger' ādīnavānupassanā Because it
has arisen through aversion for those constructions, therefore it is known
as 'contemplation of aversion' nibbidānupassanā.
6: Knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance means: the desire
for freedom and escape from all constructions of existence.. For feeling aversion
for all constructions, becoming weary of them, finding no more delight in
them, the mind does not cling to a single one of all these constructions.
7: Reflecting contemplation is the repeated meditative discernment of the
constructions of existence, attributing to them the 3 characteristics of existence,
with the desire to find deliverance from all forms of existence.
8: Equanimity regarding all constructions:;When the meditator through reflecting
contemplation has discerned the constructions by applying the 3 characteristics
to them and sees them as void, he abandons both terror and delight, and becomes
indifferent and equanimous with regard to all constructions; he neither takes
them as I nor as 'mine'; he is like a man who has divorced his wife;
Vis.M XXI, 61.
Now, while continuing to contemplate the 3 characteristics of existence
and perceiving the tranquil lot of Nibbāna
as the peace, this equanimity-knowledge becomes the triple gateway to liberation.
As it is said Pts.M. II, p. 48:
Three gateways to liberation vimokkha-mukha see. vimokkha I lead
to escape from the world, namely: that the mind is contemplating all constructions
as limited, and is rushing forward to the conditionless element animitta-dhātu
that the mind is stirred with regard to all constructions of existence, and
is rushing forward to the desireless element appanihita-dhātu
that the mind sees all things as something foreign, and is rushing forward
to the void element su˝˝atā
At this stage, and through the triple gateway, the diversification of
path attainment takes place, according to the
7 kinds of noble persons ariya-puggala,
on this see Vis.M XXI, 74ff.
The 6th, 7th and 8th knowledges, according to
Vis.M XXI, form really only one single
knowledge in its first, middle and final stages of development. This knowledge
is also known as the 'insight leading to path
9: Adaptation to truth or conformity with truth is called that knowledge
which, while contemplating impermanency, etc. adapts itself to the preceding
8 kinds of insight-knowledge, as well as to the immediately following supra-mundane
path and to the 37 elements pertaining to enlightenment
bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. It is
identical with adaptation-knowledge anuloma˝āna.
Whosoever has cultivated, developed, and frequently practised 'equanimity
regarding all constructions' in him arises very strong faith known as determination
and his energy is better exerted, his awareness or mindfulness better established,
his mind better concentrated, and a still stronger 'equanimity regarding the
constructions' arises. 'Now the path will reveal
itself', thus thinking, the meditator contemplates with his equanimity-knowledge
all constructions as impermanent, etc., and thereafter that knowledge sinks
into the subconscious stream of existence see: bhavanga-sotā
Immediately afterwards there arises directing at the mind-door see:
vi˝˝āna-kicca And just like equanimity-knowledge,
the adaptation-knowledge, too, takes as its object the constructions, regarding
them as something impermanent, miserable and impersonal. Thereupon, while
continuing the uninterrupted continuity of consciousness
citta-santati there arises the
1st impulse moment javana, called 'preparation'
parikamma, taking the same constructions
as object. Immediately thereafter, with the same constructions as object,
there arises the 2nd impulse moment, known as 'access'
upacāra And again immediately after that,
there arises the impulse moment called 'adaptation' anuloma
VII: Purification of knowledge and vision
˝ānadassana-visuddhi is the
knowledge associated with any of the 4 kinds of supra-mundane
Immediately upon this adaptation-knowledge there arises the 'change-of-lineage-knowlege'
gotrabhū taking as object the Unconditioned,
the standstill of existence, the absence of becoming, cessation, Nibbāna, while
at the same time transcending the rank gotta = gotra: lineage, designation
and plane of the worldling puthujjana,
and entering the rank, designation and plane of the Noble Ones
ariya being the first turning towards
Nibbāna as object, the first thinking
of it, the first concentration on it, and the condition for the
path... forming the culmination of insight,
and never as such coming back again.
''As the immediate continuation following upon that change-of-lineage knowledge
gotrabhū-˝āna there arises the
first path-consciousness Stream-entrance forever
destroying the first 3 of the 10 mental chains of existence
samyojana, and closing the entrance
to the lower worlds. Immediately after this path-knowledge,
there arise, as its result, 2 or 3 path-produced
states of consciousness, the fruitional consciousness
Immediately after the sinking of this consciousness into the subconscious stream
of existence, the retrospective knowledge
having the path-consciousness as its object;
Vis.M XXI. For the 3 higher
Each of the 4 kinds of path-consciousness
performs at the one and the same time 4 functions, namely: the function of
full understanding pari˝˝ā of suffering,
the function of overcoming pahāna the
origin of suffering, the function of realizing sacchikiriyā the ceasing
of suffering, the function of developing bhāvanā
the supra-mundane Noble 8-fold path
See path of Purification, by Buddhaghosa,
tr. by Đyanamoli BPS;
path of Freedom, by Upatissa
Vitakka: 'directed thought', 'thought-conception',
is one of the 'secondary' not constant mental concomitants see:
Tab. II., and may be either kammically advantageous,
disadvantageous or neutral. -;There are 3 kammically disadvantageous
akusala thoughts: sense-thought
kāma-vitakka hating thought byāpāda-v
and cruel thought vihimsa-v. There are 3 kammically advantageous
kusala thoughts: thought of renunciation
nekkhamma-v of hatelessness
avyāpāda-v of not harming
avihimsā-v The latter three
constitute 'right thought', the 2nd link of the 8-fold
path see: magga
On the 'Removal of Distracting Thoughts' vitakka-santhāna
see: M. 20 tr. in
Vitakka-vicāra: 'thought-conception and
discursive thinking', or 'applied and sustained thought' are verbal functions
sankhāra of the mind, the so-called 'inner
speech parole interieure They are constituents of the 1st absorption
see: jhāna but absent in the higher absorptions.
1;Thought-conception vitakka is the laying hold of a thought, giving
it attention. Its characteristic consists in fixing the consciousness to the
2;Discursive thinking vicāra is the roaming about and moving to and fro
of the mind. It manifests itself as continued activity of mind;
1 is compared with the striking against a bell, 2 with its resounding; 1
with the seizing of a pot, 2 with wiping it. Cf. Vis. IV..
Vitality: jīvitindriya see:
khandha materiality, mental constructions,
Vīthi = Citta-vīthi: 'process
of consciousness'; see: vi˝˝ānakicca.
Vivatta: 'absence of the cycle of existence'
vatta, standstill of existence, is a
name for Nibbāna see:
of the turning away', is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight
Viveka: 'isolation', seclusion, is according to
Niddesa, of 3 kinds: 1 bodily detachment kāya-viveka i.e. abiding in solitude free
from alluring sense-objects; 2 mental detachment
i.e. the inner detachment from sense-things; 3 detachment from the substrata
of existence upadhi-viveka.
In the description of the 1st absorption, the words;detached from sense-things;
vivicc eva kāmehi refer, according to
Vis.M IV, to 'bodily detachment'; the
words;detached from kammically disadvantageous things; vivicca akusalehi
dhammehi refer to 'mental detachment'; the words;born of detachment;
vivekaja to the absence of the 5 hindrances.
Viveka-sukha: 'happiness of seclusion', or
aloofness see: prec.;Whoso is addicted to society and worldly bustle, he will
not partake of the happiness of renunciation, detachment, peace and enlightenment;
A. VII, 86.
Vodāna: 'cleansing', may refer either to 1 morality
sīla or 2 concentration
samādhi or 3 understanding
1: Cleansing of morality takes place in 2 ways: by understanding the
misery of moral deviation
see. vipatti and by understanding the
blessing of moral perfection sīla-sampatti
see: Vis.M I.
2: Cleansing of concentration is concentration connected with progress
hāna-bhāgiya If, for example, one has entered the 1st absorption,
and sense-perceptions and reflections arise, in that case there is concentration
connected with decline... If, however, perceptions and reflections free from
thought-conception and discursive thinking 2nd
jhāna arise, in that case there is concentration
connected with progress.
3: Cleansing, with reference to understanding, is identical with the 'insight leading
to the path ascent' vutthāna-gāminī-vipassanā,
which arises at the stage of 'purification by knowledge and vision of the
visuddhi VI, and is followed immediately
by the change-of-lineage moment and the entrance into the supra-mundane
Vohāra-desanā: 'conventional exposition',
as distinguished from an explanation true in the highest sense
It is also called sammuti-sacca
in Sanskrit samvrti App..
Votthapana-citta: 'determining consciousness',
is that mindelement functioning independently of kamma; see:
Tab. I, 70. which in the process of sense-perception
performs the function of determining the sense-object. It is one of the 14
functions of consciousness vi˝˝āna-kicca.
leading to path ascent'. It is also called 'cleansing'
vodāna, and according to
Pts.M. II, 64, it is a name for 3 kinds
of insight-knowledge, namely: knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance
visuddhi VI 6; reflecting-contemplation-knowledge
ib. VI, 7; and knowledge consisting in equanimity regarding all constructions
visuddhi VI, 8.
It arises at the stage of 'purification by knowledge and vision of the
visuddhi VI, and is followed immediately
by the change-of-lineage moment and the entrance into the supra-mundane
'Ascent' vutthāna is the supra-mundane
path see: ariya-puggala since
it rises above the object forming the external foundation of insight; i.e.
the external 5 groups of existence, in which object one's mind was absorbed,
and also rises above one's own continuity one's own 5 groups of existence,
or khandha together with its defilements.
By reason of its leading upwards to the supra-mundane
path, this insight is called 'ascending insight'.
That it passes on to the path: that is the meaning
implied; Vis.M XXI, 83f..
Vyāpāda: 'ill-will', is a synonym of
dosa see: mūla
it is one of the 5 hindrances nīvarana
and one of the 10 mental chains samyojana.