1. Campā. A city in India on the
river of the same name; it was the capital of Anga and was celebrated for its
beautiful lake, the Gaggarā-pokkharanī (q.v.), which was excavated by Queen
Gaggarā. On its banks was a grove of campaka-trees, well known for the fragrance
of their marvellous white flowers, and there, in the Buddha's time, wandering
teachers were wont to lodge. The Buddha himself stayed thereon several occasions
(Vin.i.312; S. i.195; A.iv.59, 168; v.151, 189). Sāriputta (A.iv.59) and Vangīsa
(S.i.195) are also said to have stayed there. The Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta
(D.ii.147) mentions Campā as one of the six important cities of India, its
foundation being ascribed to Mahāgovinda (D.ii.235). It lay at a distance of
sixty yojanas from Mithilā (J.iv.32). In the Buddha's time the people of Campā
owed allegiance to Bimbisāra, as king of Magadha, and Bimbisāra had given a
royal fief in Campā to the brahmin Sonadanda (D.i.111). Campā was evidently an
important centre of trade, and we are told that merchants travelled from there
to Suvannabhūmi for purposes of trade (E.g., J. vi.539). Most probably it was the
Indian colonists from Campā who named one of their most important settlements in
Indo-China after this famous old town. The ancient name of Campā was probably
Mālini or Mālina.( Campasya tu puri Campā, yā Mālinyabhavat purā; Mbh.xii.5, 6,
7; Matsyapurāna 48, 97, etc.; Law, A.G.I.6, n.2).
The ninth chapter of the Mahā Vagga of
the Vinaya Pitaka (Vin.i.312ff; see also Vin.iī.307) contains several important
regulations laid down by the Buddha at Campā regarding the validity and
otherwise of formal acts of the Sangha.
Campā is mentioned as the birthplace of
Sona-Kolivisa, Jambugāmika, Nandaka and Bharata, and among those who resided
there were Bāhuna, Vajjiyamāhita and Thullanandā and her companions.
The Sonadanda, the Dasuttara, the
Kandaraka and the Kārandava Suttas were preached there.
According to Buddhaghosa (MA.ii.565),
Campā was so called because the whole place abounded in large Campaka-trees.
Campā is generally identified with a
site about twenty-four miles to the east of the modern Bhagalpur, near the
villages of Campānagara and Campāpura (CAGI.5). It was visited by Hiouen
Thsang (Beal., Records ii.187f), and Fa Hien calls it a great kingdom with many
places of worship (p.65).
The Buddha's bathing-robe was enshrined
in Campā (Bu.xxviii.9). See also Kāla Campā, probably another name for Campā.
2. Campā, Campakā.One of the two
chief women disciples of Kakusandha Buddha. Bu.xxiii.21; J. i.42.
3. Campā, Campakā.Birthplace of
Paduma Buddha (Bu ix.16; J. i.36). Near by was the Campaka-uyyāna.
4. Campā. The river which flowed
between Anga and Magadha (now called Chāndan). The Nāga Campeyya held sway over
the river. J. iv.454f.
5. Campā. A channel branching off
from the Parakkama-samudda, from the sluice near the Candī gate. Cv.lxxix.4.5.