1. Jetavana. A park in Sāvatthi, in
which was built the Anāthapindikārāma. When the Buddha
accepted Anāthapindika's invitation to
visit Sāvatthi the latter, seeking a suitable
place for the Buddha's residence, discovered this park belonging to
Jetakumāra (MA.i.471 says it was in the south of
Sāvatthi). When he asked to be allowed to buy it, Jeta's reply was: "Not even if
you could cover the whole place with money." Anāthapindika said that he would
buy it at that price, and when Jeta answered that he had had no intention of
making a bargain, the matter was taken before the Lords of Justice, who decided
that if the price mentioned were paid, Anāthapindika had the right of purchase.
Anāthapindika had gold brought down in carts and covered Jetavana with pieces
laid side by side. (This incident is illustrated in a bas-relief at the Bharhut
Tope; see Cunningham - the Stūpa of Bharhut, Pl.lvii., pp.84-6). The money
brought in the first journey was found insufficient to cover one small spot near
the gateway. So Anāthapindika sent his servants back for more, but Jeta,
inspired by Anāthapindika's earnestness, asked to be allowed to give this spot.
Anāthapindika agreed and Jeta erected there a gateway, with a room over it.
Anāthapindika built in the grounds dwelling rooms, retiring rooms, store rooms
and service halls, halls with fireplaces, closets, cloisters, halls for
exercise, wells, bathrooms, ponds, open and roofed sheds, etc. (Vin.ii.158f).
It is said (MA.i.50; UdA.56f) that Anāthapindika paid eighteen crores for the
purchase of the site, all of which Jeta spent in the construction of the gateway
gifted by him. (The gateway was evidently an imposing structure; see J. ii.216).
Jeta gave, besides, many valuable trees for timber. Anāthapindika himself
spent fifty-four crores in connection with the purchase of the park and the
buildings erected in it.
The ceremony of dedication was one of great splendour. Not only Anāthapindika
himself, but his whole family took part: his son with five hundred other youths,
his wife with five hundred other noble women, and his daughters
Mahā Subhaddā and
Cūla Subhaddā with five hundred other
maidens. Anāthapindika was attended by five hundred bankers. The festivities in
connection with the dedication lasted for nine months (J.i.92ff).
Some of the chief buildings attached to the Jetavana are mentioned in the
books by special names, viz., Mahāgandhakuti, Kaverimandalamāla, Kosambakuti and
Candanamāla. SnA.ii.403. Other buildings are also mentioned - e.g., the
Ambalakotthaka-āsanasālā (J.ii.246). According to Tibetan sources the vihāra was
built according to a plan sent by the devas of Tusita and contained sixty large
halls and sixty small. The Dulva also gives details of the decorative scheme of
the vihāra (Rockhill: op. cit.48 and n.2).
All these were built by Anāthapindika; there was another large building
erected by Pasenadi and called the Salalaghara
(DA.ii.407). Over the gateway lived a guardian deity to prevent all evildoers
from entering (SA.i.239). Just outside the monastery was a rājayatana-tree, the
residence of the god Samiddhisumana (Mhv.i.52f; MT 105; but see DhA.i.41, where
the guardian of the gateway is called Sumana).
In the grounds there seems to have been a large pond which came to be called
the Jetavanapokkharanī. (AA.i.264; here the Buddha often bathed (J.i.329ff.). Is
this the Pubbakotthaka referred to at A.iii.345? But see S. v.220; it was near
this pond that Devadatta was swallowed up in
The grounds themselves were thickly covered with trees, giving the appearance
of a wooded grove (arañña) (Sp.iii.532). On the outskirts of the monastery was a
mango-grove (J.iii.137). In front of the gateway was the Bodhi-tree planted by
Anāthapindika, which came later to be called the
Anandabodhi (J.iv.228f). Not far from the
gateway was a cave which became famous as the
Kapallapūvapabbhāra on account of an incident connected with
Near Jetavana was evidently a monastery of the heretics where
Ciñcāmānavikā spent her nights while
hatching her conspiracy against the Buddha. (DhA.iii.179; behind Jetavana was a
spot where the Ajivakas practised their
austerities (J.i.493). Once the heretics bribed Pasenadi to let them make a
rival settlement behind Jetavana, but the Buddha frustrated their plans
There seems to have been a playground just outside Jetavana used by the
children of the neighbourhood, who, when thirsty, would go into Jetavana to
drink (DhA.iii.492). The high road to Sāvatthi passed by the edge of Jetavana,
and travellers would enter the park to rest and refresh themselves (J.ii.203,
341; see also vi.70, where two roads are mentioned).
According to the Divyāvadāna (Dvy.395f), the thūpas of Sāriputta and
Moggallāna were in the grounds of Jetavana and existed until the time of
Asoka. Both Fa Hien (Giles: p.33ff) and
Houien Thsang (Beal..ii.7ff) give descriptions
of other incidents connected with the Buddha, which took place in the
neighbourhood of Jetavana - e.g., the murder of
Sundarikā, the calumny of Ciñcā,
Devadatta's attempt to poison the Buddha, etc.
The space covered by the four bedposts of the Buddha's Gandhakuti in Jetavana
is one of the four avijahitatthānāni; all Buddhas possess the same, though the
size of the actual vihāra differs in the case of the various Buddhas. For
Vipassī Buddha, the setthi Punabbasumitta built a monastery extending for a
whole league, while for Sikhī, the setthi Sirivaddha made one covering three
gavutas. The Sanghārāma built by Sotthiya for Vessabhū was half a league in
extent, while that erected by Accuta for Kakusandha covered only one gāvuta.
Konagamana's monastery, built by the setthi Ugga, extended for half a gāvuta,
while Kassapa's built by Sumangala covered sixteen karīsas. Anāthapindika's
monastery covered a space of eighteen karīsas (BuA.2, 47; J. i.94; DA.ii.424).
The Buddha spent nineteen rainy seasons in Jetavana (DhA.i.3; BuA.3;
AA.i.314). It is said that after the
Migāramātupāsāda came into being, the Buddha would dwell alternately in
Jetavana and Migāramātupāsāda, often spending the day in one and the night in
the other (SnA..i.336).
According to a description given by Fa Hien (Giles, pp.31, 33), the vihāra
was originally in seven sections (storeys?) and was filled with all kinds of
offerings, embroidered banners, canopies, etc., and the lamps burnt from dusk to
One day a rat, holding in its mouth a lamp wick, set fire to the banners and
canopies, and all the seven sections were entirely destroyed. The vihāra was
later rebuilt in two sections. There were two main entrances, one on the east,
one on the west, and Fa Hsien found thūpas erected at all the places connected
with the Buddha, each with its name inscribed.
The vihāra is almost always referred to as Jetavane Anāthapindikassa Ārāma.
The Commentaries (MA.ii.50; UdA.56f, etc.) say that this was deliberate (at the
Buddha's own suggestion pp.81-131; Beal.: op. cit., ii.5 and Rockhill: p.49), in
order that the names of both earlier and later owners might be recorded and that
people might be reminded of two men, both very generous in the cause of the
Religion, so that others might follow their example. The vihāra is sometimes
referred to as Jetārāma (E.g., Ap.i.400).
In the district of Saheth-Mabeth, with which the region of Sāvatthi is
identified, Saheth is considered to be Jetavana (Arch. Survey of India, 1907-8,
2. Jetavana. A monastery in
Anurādhapura, situated in the Jotivana and
founded by Mahāsena at the instigation of a monk named Tissa of the
Dakkhinārāma. The monks of the
Mahāvihāra protested against this and Jetavana was later given to them
(Mhv.Xxxvii.32ff). Attached to the vihāra is a large thūpa. The work was
completed by Sirimeghavanna (Cv.xxxvii.65). Dāthàpabhuti held in the vihāra the
ceremony in honour of the Dhammadhātu (Cv.xli.40; also Cv.Trs.i.55, n.2), while
Mahānāga gave to it the village of Vasabha in Uddhagāma and three hundred
fields, to ensure a permanent supply of rice gruel to the monks (Cv.xli.97f).
Aggabodhi II. crowned the thūpa with a lightning conductor (cumbata)
(Cv.xlii.66), Jetthatissa I. gave for its maintenance the village of Gondigāma
(Cv.xliv.97), and Aggabodhi III. bestowed on it the Mahāmanikagāma
(Cv.xliv.121). Potthasāta, senāpati of Aggabodhi IV., built in the vihāra the
Aggabodhi-parivena (Cv.xlvi.22), and Aggabodhi IX. made a golden image to be
placed in the shrine-room (Cv.xlix.77).
Sena I. erected in the monastery grounds a mansion of several storeys (Cv.,
l.65). Kassapa V. gave a village for the maintenance of the refectory
(Cv.lii.59), while four officials of Mahinda IV. built four parivenas attached
to the vihāra (Cv.liv.49).
The monks of Jetavana, though nominally forming part of the Mahāvihāra
fraternity, held divergent views in regard to the teachings of the Buddha, and
were considered as a separate sect (the Sāgaliyas) till Parakkamabāhu 1. united
all the fraternities (Cv.lxxviii.22).
The thūpa at Jetavana was restored by Parakkamabāhu I. to a height of two
hundred and ten feet (Cv.lxxviii.98).
3. Jetavana. A monastery in Pulatthipura, built by Parakkamabāhu I. It
included the building which housed the Tivanka image (Cv.lxxviii.32, 47). The
Nammadā Canal flowed through the grounds of Jetavana. Ibid., lxxix.48. See also