1. Kāsi (Kāsika).One of the sixteen
Mahājanapadas (A.i.213, etc.), its
capital being Bārānasī.
At the time of the Buddha, it had been absorbed
into the kingdom of Kosala, and
Pasenadi was king of both countries (D.i.288;
M.ii.111). The Mahāvagga (Vin.i.28l), however, mentions a Kāsika-rājā (king of
Kāsi?) who sent a robe to Jīvaka. Buddhaghosa
(see Vinaya Texts ii.195, n.2) says that this was a brother of Pasenadi and son
of the same father. He was probably a sub-king of Pasenadi. Pasenadi's father,
Mahākosala, on giving his daughter in
marriage to Bimbisāra, allotted her a village
of Kāsi (Kāsigāma) as bath money (J.iv.342;
J.ii.403; SA.i.110,120f, etc.).
Even at this time, however, the memory of Kāsi as an independent kingdom
seems to have been still fresh in men's minds. It is very frequently mentioned
as such in the Jātakas and elsewhere. Kāsi was once ruled by the
Bhāratas, one of whom,
Dhatarattha, was its king in the time of
Renu (D.ii.235f). There seem to have been frequent
wars between the countries of Kāsi and Kosala, victory belonging now to one, now
to the other. In one such war, Dīghāti, the
Kosala king, was defeated by the king of Kāsi, but Dīghīti's son Dīghāvu won
back the kingdom (Vin.i.334; J. iii.487; DhA.i.46). In another war the Kāsi king,
Mahāsīlava, was taken captive by
the ruler of Kosala, but his kingdom was later restored to him (J.i.262, etc.;
see also i.409; UdA.123).
The traditional name of the king of Kāsi from time immemorial was evidently
Brahmadatta, and references to kings of that
name abound in the Jātakas. Sometimes the king is referred to merely as
Kāsi-rājā. Among other kings of Kāsi mentioned are
Kikī (M.ii.49) and Kalābu (J.iii.39). The extent
of the Kāsi kingdom is given as three hundred leagues (J.v.41; also iii.304,
The capital of Kāsi is generally given as
Bārānasī, but it is said that when Asoka was
king of Kāsi his capital was in Potali
(J.iii.155), and another king, Udaya-bhadda,
had his seat of government in Surundha
(J.iv.104ff). It is possible that these cities did not form part of the regular
kingdom of Kāsi, but became annexed to it during the reigns of some of the more
Kāsi was evidently a great centre of trade and a most populous and prosperous
country. Frequent mention is made of caravans leaving Kāsi to travel for trade.
One highway went through Kāsi to Rājagaha
(Vin.i.212) and another to Sāvatthi
(Vin.ii.10; Mhv.v.114). Kāsi was famed for her silks, and Kāsi-robes were most
highly esteemed as gifts, each robe being valued at one hundred thousand. (See,
e.g., J. vi.151, 450; see also Addhakāsi). Mention is also made of the perfumes
of Kāsi (Kāsi-vilepana (J.i.355) and Kāsi-candana (A.iii.391; UdA.332)).
Besides those already referred to, other names of places mentioned in
literature as belonging to Kāsi, are
Vāsabhagāma, Macchikāsanda (the
kammantagāma of Anāthapindika),
Kāsi and Kosala are frequently mentioned together. (E.g., A.v.59).
2. Kāsi, or Kāsika. A city, the birthplace of Phussa Buddha
(Bu.xix.14; J. i.41). There he preached the Buddhavamsa (BuA.193). The city is
probably to be identified with Benares, which is sometimes referred to as
Kāsipura (E.g., DhA.i.71; J. v.54; vi.165; M.i.171; DhsA.35; Cv.xli.37). It is
also called Kāsipurī (PvA.19).