The third of the twenty four Buddhas.
He was born sixteen asankheyyas and one hundred thousand kappas ago in the Uttaramadhura Park, in
the city of Uttara, his father being a khattiya named Uttara and his mother
Uttarā. It is said that from the day of her conception, an aura shed its rays
night and day from her body, to a distance of eighty hands -
hence his name. He surpassed other Buddhas in glory of body. In his last birth
as a human being (corresponding to that of Vessantara in the case of Gotama) he
lived with his family as an ascetic. A man eating yakkha, named Kharadāthika,
took from him his two children and ate them in his presence, "crunching them as
though they were yams," while the blood dripped from his mouth. (It is probably
this incident, which is referred to at J. iv.13). The Bodhisatta stood firm in
his resolve and repented not of his gift to the yakkha, but registered a desire
that in future births his body should emit light as bright as the blood which
flowed down the yakkha's face. In a previous birth, Mangala paid honour to the
cetiya of a Buddha by wrapping his body in cloth drenched with oil, setting fire
to it and walking round the cetiya throughout the night, carrying on his head a
golden bowl filled with scented oil and lighted with one thousand wicks. Not a
hair on his body suffered damage.
For nine thousand years Mangala lived in the household in
three palaces, Yasavā, Sucimā and Sirimā, with his wife Yasavatī, by whom he had
one son, Sīvala. He left the world on a horse and practised austerities for
eight months. Just before his Enlightenment he ate a meal of milk rice given by
a maiden, Uttarā, daughter of Uttarasetthi in Uttaragāma; an Ājīvaka, named
Uttara, gave him grass for his seat. His Bodhi was a Nāga tree. After his
Enlightenment he lived for ninety thousand years, and for all that time the aura
from his body spread throughout the ten thousand world systems, shutting out
sun, moon and stars. People knew the times and the seasons by the cries of the
birds and the blooming of the flowers.
Mangala's first sermon was preached in the Sirivaruttama
Grove, near Sirivaddha. His chief disciples among men were Sudeva and Dhammasena,
and his chief nuns Sīvalā and Asokā. Pālita was his
constant attendant (BuA.124 calls him Uttara). Nanda and Visākha were his chief
patrons among lay men and Anulā and Sutanā among lay women. In Mangala's time
the Bodhisatta was the brahmin Suruci (q.v.). Mangala's body was eighty cubits
high; he held three assemblies: the first at the preaching of the Dhammacakka,
the second at Cittanagara, when he preached to Sunanda, king of Surabhinagara,
and his son Anurāja, and the third at Mekhala to Sudeva and Dhammasena who later
became his chief disciples.
He died in the park of Vessara, and a cetiya, thirty
leagues high, was erected over his ashes (Bu.iv.1ff.; BuA.115ff.; J. i.30 ff.;
the particulars found in Mtu.i.248 50, are slightly different). It is said
(Bu.iv.29) that all Mangala Buddha's personal disciples attained arahantship
before their death.
2. Mangala. The Bodhisatta born as an ascetic in
the time of Dhammadassī Buddha. J. i.40; but Bu.xvi.9 says he was then born as
3. Mangala. The Bodhisatta born as an ascetic in
the time of Siddhattha Buddha (Bu.xvii.8; M.T.62). He was a very rich brahmin of
Surasena, and later gave away all his wealth and became an ascetic. On one
occasion, by his iddhi power, he obtained fruit which grew on the jambu tree
(which gave its name to Jambudīpa) and offered it at the Surasena vihāra to
Siddhattha Buddha and ninety crores of monks. BuA.187.
4. Mangala Thera. An arahant. He was present at the
Foundation-ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa (Dpv.xix.8). See Mahāmangala.
5. Mangala. A flood gate in the Parakkamasamudda
from which branched off the Mangala Gangā. Cv.lxxix.45.
6. Mangala. A locality in South India mentioned in
the account of the campaigns of Parakkamabāhu. Cv.lxxvi.297.
7. Mangala. A tribe of elephants, each of which had
the strength of ten million men. MA.i.262; AA.ii.822; BuA.37, etc.
8. Mangala. A monk of Pagan, probably of the
fourteenth century, author of a grammatical work called the Gandhatthi. Bode,
op. cit., 26.
9. Mangala. A Thera of Ceylon, preceptor of Vedeha.
10. Mangala. A young man in the time of Vipassī
Buddha, who came from Tāvatimsa and held a mandārava flower over the Buddha as
he sat meditating. Mangala was a previous birth of Ekamandāriya Thera. Ap.i.286.
11. Mangala. A Pacceka Buddha. M.iii.70.
12. Mangala. A monk of Khandasīmā
and teacher of Vedeha (q.v.).
13. Mangala. A palace occupied by