1. Sumana. The fourth of the twenty four Buddhas. He was born in
Mekhala, his father being the khattiya Sudatta and his mother Sirimā. For nine
thousand years he lived as a householder in three palaces - Canda, Sucanda and
Vatamsa (BuA.125 calls them Nārivaddhana, Somavaddhana and Iddhivaddhana) - his
wife being Vatamsikā and his son Anupama. He left the world on an elephant,
practised austerities for ten months, and attained enlightenment under a nāga
tree, being given a meal of milk rice by Anupamā, daughter of Anupama-setthi of
Anoma, and grass for his seat by the Ajīvaka Anupama. His first sermon was
preached in the Mekhala Park, and among his first disciples were his step
brother Sarana and the purohita's son Bhāvitatta. His Twin miracle was performed
in Sunandavatī. The Bodhisatta was a Nāga king Atula. One of the Buddha's chief
assemblies was on the occasion of his solving the questions of King Arindama on
Sarana and Bhāvitatta were his chief monks and Sonā and Upasenā his chief
nuns. Udena was his personal attendant. Varuna and Sarana were his chief lay
supporters among men and Cālā and Upacālā among women. His body was ninety
cubits in height, and he died at the age of ninety thousand in Angārāma, where a
thūpa of four yojanas was erected over his ashes. Bu.v.1ff.; BuA.125f.;
2. Sumana. Attendant of Padumuttara Buddha (J.i.37; Bu.xi.24). His
eminence prompted Ananda (Sumana in that birth) to resolve to be an attendant of
some future Buddha. ThagA.ii.122; see also Ap.i.195.
3. Sumana. Step brother of Padumuttara, Buddha. He obtained, as boon
from the king, the privilege of waiting on the Buddha for three months. He built
in the park of Sobhana a vihāra. The park belonged to the householder Sobhana,
and he built the vihāra, on land for which he gave one hundred thousand. There
he entertained the Buddha and his monks. Sunanda is identified with Ananda.
ThagA.ii.122f.; AA.i.160f.; SA.ii.168f.
4. Sumana. A pupil of Anuruddha. He represented the monks from
Pāveyyaka at the Second Council.
Vāsabhagāmi was his colleague. See also
(8). Mhv.iv.49, 58; Dpv. iv.48; v.24; Vin.ii.305, etc.
5. Sumana. A garland maker, given as an example of one
whose acts bore fruit in this very life (Mil..115, 291, 350; cf. DhSA.426;
PSA.498). He was Bimbisāra's gardener, and provided the king daily with eight
measures of jasmine flowers, for which he received eight pieces of money, One
day, while on his way to the palace, he saw the Buddha, and threw two handfuls
of flowers into the air, where they formed a canopy over the Buddha's head. Two
handfuls thrown on the right, two on the left and two behind, all remained
likewise in the air and accompanied the Buddha as he walked through the city, a
distance of three leagues, that all might see the miracle.
When Sumana returned home with his empty basket and told his wife what he had
done, she was fearful lest the king should punish him. Going to the palace, she
confessed what he had done, and asked for forgiveness for herself as she had had
no part in the deed. Bimbisāra visited the Buddha and then sent for Sumana.
Sumana confessed that when he offered the flowers to the Buddha he was quite
prepared to lose his life. The king gave him the eightfold gift: eight female
slaves, eight sets of jewels, eight thousand pieces of money, eight women from
the royal harem, and eight villages.
In reply to a question by Ananda, the Buddha said that in the future the
garland maker would become a Pacceka Buddha, Sumana. DhA.ii.40f.; KhpA.129.
According to KhpA., the Pacceka Buddha's name will be Sumanissara.
6. Sumana. Chief lay supporter of Kassapa Buddha. DA.ii.424; but see
7. Sumana Thera. He belonged to a brahmin family of
mother's brother was an arahant, and ordained him as soon as he grew up. Sumana
soon acquired the four jhānas and fivefold aññā and, in due course, attained
Ninety five kappas ago he gave a harītaka-fruit to a Pacceka Buddha who was
ill (Thag.vss.330-4; ThagA.i.411f). He is evidently identical with
Harītakadāyaka of the Apadāna. Ap.ii.394; cf. Avadānas ii. 67-70.
8. Sumana Thera. See Cūla Sumana (3). He is probably identical with
Sumana (4), and may be identical with Sumana (7) if the uncle mentioned in
connection with the latter is Anuruddha.
Thirty one kappas ago he was a garland maker and offered jasmine-flowers to
Sikhī Buddha. Twenty six kappas ago he was king four times, under the name of
Mahāyasa. Thagg.vss.429-34; ThagA.i.457f.
9. Sumana Thera. He is mentioned as having lived in Andhavana with
Khema. Together they visited the Buddha, and, when Khema had gone away, Sumana
talked with the Buddha about arahants (A.iii.348f). He is probably identical
with Sumana (7) or (8).
10. Sumana. A setthi in the time of Padumuttara Buddha. He was the
employer and, later, the friend of Annabhāra (q.v.).
11. Sumana. A householder in the time of Dutthagāmanī Abhaya, in the
village of Bhokkanta in South Ceylon. Later he lived in the village Mahāmuni, in
the district of Dīghavāpi. Ubbirī was born as his daughter and was named Sumanā.
Sumanā married Lakuntaka Atimbara. DhA.iv.50f.
12. Sumana. A setthi of Sāvatthi. He was the father of
Anāthapindika and Subhūti Thera.
ThagA.i.23; AA.i.125, 208.
13. Sumana. A Pacceka Buddha of thirty one kappas ago, to whom, in a
previous birth, Bhalliya (ThagA.ii.49) and Bhāradvāja Thera (ThagA.ii.303; cf.
Ap.ii.416) gave vallikāra-fruit.
14. Sumana. Eldest son of King Bindusāra.
He was killed by Asoka.
Nigrodha-sāmanera was his son
and Sumanā his wife. Mhv.v.38, 41; Sp.i.45.
15. Sumana. Son of Sanghamittā and Aggibrahmā (Mhv.v.170). He joined
the Order at the age of seven; even as a sāmanera he was gifted with the sixfold
abhiññā and accompanied Mahinda to Ceylon (Mhv.Xiii.4,18). Once when he
announced that Mahinda was going to preach his voice was heard all over Ceylon
(Mhv.Xiv.33). In order to get relics for the cetiyas in Ceylon, he went (by air)
to Papphapura (Pātaliputta), and from there to Sakka's abode, for the Buddha's
right collar bone. He supervised the placing of the relics in the
Thūpārāma-cetiya. Mhv.xvii.7, 21; xix.24, 42; see also Dpv. xii.13, 26, 39;
xv.5f., 28, 93.
16. Sumana. Governor of Girijanapada in the time of Kākavannatissa. He
was a friend of Velusumana’s father. Mhv.xxiii.69.
17. Sumana. A Yakkha chief, to be invoked in time of need by followers
of the Buddha. D.iii.205.
18. Sumana. One of the chief lay patrons of
Metteyya Buddha. Anāgat.vs.98.
19. Sumana. A Pacceka Buddha of the future. See Sumana
20. Sumana. A gardener of Kosambī. He worked for three setthis:
Kukkuta and Pāvāriya. With their
permission, he entertained the Buddha one day, and it was at his house that
Khujjuttarā met and heard the Buddha.
21. Sumana. A setthiputta of
(Punnasīha) was his servant, but, later, Punna, as the result of giving alms to
Sāriputta, became rich and Sumana married his
daughter, Uttarā. Sumana was an
unbeliever, and Uttarā, wishing for leisure in which to practise her religion,
obtained for him the services of the courtesan Sirimā,
paying her with the money obtained from her father. DhA.iii.104, 302f.
22. Sumana. A deity who lived in the fortified chamber over the gate
in Jetavana. DhA.i.41.
23. Sumana. See Samiddhisumana.
24. Sumana. An eminent monk, who was present at the Foundation
Ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa. Dpv. xix.8; in
MT. (524) he is called Mahā Sumana.
25. Sumana. The guardian deity of
Samantakūta. See also Cv.lxxxvi.19.
26. Sumana. The personal name of