Janaka-kamma: 'regenerative kamma'; see:
Jarā: 'old age, decay', is one of the 3 divine messengers
see: deva-dūta. For its conditioning
by birth, see: paticcasamuppāda
Jāti: 'birth', comprises the entire embryonic process
beginning with conception and ending with parturition.
The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their being
born, their conception okkanti and
springing into existence, the manifestation of the groups materiality, feeling,
perception, mental constructions, consciousness; see:
khandha the acquiring of their sensitive
organs: this is called birth; D. 22. For
its conditioning by the prenatal kamma-making
paticcasamuppāda 9, 10,
Javana: fr. javati to impel: 'impulsion',
is the phase of full cognition in the cognitive series, or perceptual process
viññāna-kicca occurring at its climax,
if the respective object is large or distinct. It is at this phase that kamma
is produced, i.e. advantageous or disadvantageous intention concerning the
perception that was the object of the previous stages of the respective process
of consciousness. There are normally 7 impulse moments. In mundane consciousness
lokiya, any of the 17 kammically advantageous
classes of consciousness Tab. I, 1-17 or of the 12
disadvantageous ones Tab. I, 22-23 may arise at the
phase of impulsion. For the Arahat, however, impulsion has no longer a kammic,
i.e. rebirth-producing character, but is a kammically independent function
kiriya Tab. I,
72-89. There are further 8 supra-mundane classes of impulsion
Tab. I, 18-21, 66-69.
The 4 impulse moments immediately before entering an absorption
jhāna or one of the supra-mundane
see. ariya-puggala are: the preparatory
upacāra adaptation anuloma and
In connection with entering the earth-kasina absorption see:
kasina they are explained as follows, in
Vis.M IV:;After the breaking off of the
subconscious stream of being bhavanga-sota,
there arises the 'directing at the mind-door' manodvārāvajjana see:
viññānakicca, taking as object the earthkasina whilst thinking, 'Earth!
Earth!' Thereupon, 4 or 5 impulse moments flash forth, amongst which the last
one change-of-lineage-moment belongs to the fine-material sphere
rūpāvacara whereas the rest belong
to the sense-sphere kāmāvacara,
see: avacara though the last one is
more powerful in thought conception, discursive thinking, interest rapture,
joy and concentration cf. jhāna than
the states of consciousness belonging to the sense-sphere. They are called
as they are preparing for the attainment-concentration appanā-samādhi;
access upacāra-samādhi as they
are close to the attainment-concentration and are moving in its neighbourhood;
adaptive anuloma as they adapt themselves to the preceding preparatory
states and to the succeeding attainment concentration. The last one of the
four is called 'matured' gotrabhū. In a similar way, the impulse moments before
reaching the divine ear are described in Vis.M
XIII, 1. - Cf. Kamma - App..
Jewels: The 3:
Jhāna: 'absorption' meditation refers chiefly to
the four meditative absorptions of the fine-material sphere
avacara They are achieved through the
attainment of full or attainment -, or ecstatic concentration appanā
see: samādhi during which there is
a complete, though temporary, suspension of fivefold sense-activity and of
the 5 hindrances see: nīvarana The
state of consciousness, however, is one of full alertness and lucidity. This
high degree of concentration is generally developed by the practice of one
of the 40 subjects of tranquillity meditation
see. bhāvanā Often also the 4 immaterial
spheres arūpāyatana are called absorptions of the immaterial sphere
arūpāvacara-jjhāna The stereotype
text, often met with in the Suttas, runs as follows:
1;Detached from sensual objects, o Bhikkhus, detached from disadvantageous
consciousness, attached with thought-conception vitakka and discursive thinking
vicāra, born of detachment vivekaja
and filled with rapture pīti and joy
sukha he enters the first absorption.
2;After the subsiding of thought-conception and discursive thinking, and
by gaining inner tranquillity and oneness of mind, he enters into a state
free from thought-conception and discursive thinking, the second absorption,
which is born of concentration samādhi
and filled with rapture pīti and joy
3;After the fading away of rapture he dwells in equanimity, mindful, clearly
conscious; and he experiences in his person that feeling of which the Noble
Ones say, 'Happy lives the man of equanimity and attentive mind'; thus he
enters the 3rd absorption.
4;After having given up pleasure and pain, and through the disappearance
of previous joy and grief, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain,
into the 4th absorption, which is purified by equanimity
upekkhā and awareness or mindfulness.
5;Through the total overcoming of the perceptions of matter, however, and
through the vanishing of sense-reactions and the non-attention to the perceptions
of variety, with the idea, 'Infinite is space', he reaches the sphere of Infinite
space ākāsānañcāyatana and
[;By 'perceptions of matter' rūpa-saññā are meant the absorptions of
the fine-material sphere, as well as those objects themselves...Vis.M
By 'perceptions of sense-reactions' patigha-saññā are meant those perceptions that
have arisen due to the impact of sense-organs eye, etc. and the sense-objects
visible objects, etc.. They are a name for the perception of visible objects,
as it is said Jhāna-Vibh.: 'What are here the perceptions of sense-reactions?
They are the perceptions of visible objects, sounds, etc.' - Surely, they
do no longer exist even for one who has entered the 1st absorption, etc.,
for at such a time the five-sense consciousness is no longer functioning.
Nevertheless, this is to be understood as having been said in praise of this
immaterial absorption, in order to incite the striving for it;
Vis.M X, 16.
Perceptions of variety ñānatta-saññā
are the perceptions that arise in various fields, or the various perceptions;
ib.. Hereby, according to Vis.M X, 20,
are meant the multiform perceptions outside the absorptions.]
6;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of Infinite space, and with
the idea 'Infinite is consciousness', he reaches the sphere of Infinite consciousness
7;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of Infinite consciousness,
and with the idea 'Nothing is there', he reaches the sphere of nothingness
ākiñcaññāyatana and abides
8;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of nothingness he reaches
the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception nevasaññā-n'asaññāyatana
and abides therein
Thus the 1st absorption is free from 5 things i.e. the hindrances,
nīvarana, and 5 things are present i.e.
the factors of absorption; jhānanga
Whenever the Bhikkhu enters the 1st absorption, there have vanished sense-desire,
ill-will, lethargy and Laziness, restlessness and regrets, doubts; and there
are present: thought-conception vitakka discursive thinking
pīti, joy sukha
and concentration samādhi In the 2nd
absorption there are present: rapture, joy and concentration; in the 3rd: joy
and concentration; in the 4th: equanimity upekkhā
and concentration; Vis.M IV.
The 4 absorptions of the immaterial sphere see: above 5-8 still belong,
properly speaking, to the 4th absorption as they possess the same two constituents.
The 4th fine-material absorption is also the base or starting point pādaka-jhāna
for the attaining of the higher spiritual powers
In the Abhidhamma, generally a fivefold instead of a fourfold division of
the fine-material absorptions is used: the 2nd absorption has still the constituent
'discursive thinking' but without thought-conception, while the 3rd, 4th and
5th correspond to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th, respectively, of the fourfold division
see: Tab. I, 9- 13. This fivefold division is based
on sutta texts like A. VIII, 63.
For the 8 absorptions as objects for the development of insight
vipassanā, see samatha-vipassanā
- Full details in Vis.M IV-X.
Jhāna in its widest sense e.g. as one of the 24 conditions; see:
paccaya 17, denotes any, even momentary or
weak absorption of mind, when directed on a single object.
Jhānanga: 'constituents or factors of absorption';
Jhāna-paccaya: is one of the 24 conditions
Jīva: life, vital principle, individual soul. 'Soul
life and body are identical' and 'Soul and body are different', these two frequently
quoted wrong views fall under the 2 kinds of personality-belief
ditthi i.e. the first one under the annihilation-belief
uccheda-ditthi and the second
under the eternity-belief sassata-ditthi.
Verily, if one holds the view that the soul life is identical with the body,
in that case a Noble life is not possible; or if one holds the view that the
soul life is something quite different, also in that case a Noble life is impossible.
Both these extremes the Perfect One has avoided and shown the Middle Doctrine,
which says: 'On ignorance depend the kammic-constructions, on the kammic-constructions
depends consciousness', etc.; S. XII. 35.
Jīvita: and Jīvitindriya:
'Life, vitality', may be either physical rūpa-jīvitindriya or mental nāma-jīvitindriya The latter is
one of the mental properties inseparably associated with all consciousness; cf.
nāma, cetanā, phassa.
Jīvita-navaka-kalāpa: ninefold vital
group; see: rūpa-kalāpa.
- Altruistic j. = muditā see: