Ubhato-bhāga-vimutta: the 'both-ways-liberated
one', is the name of one class of Noble Disciples
ariya-puggala. He is liberated in
2 ways, namely, by way of all 8 absorptions jhāna
as well as by the supra-mundane path
sotāpatti, etc. based on insight
M. 70 it is said:
''Who, o Bhikkhus, is a both-ways-liberated one'? If someone in his own
person has reached the 8 liberations absorptions, and through wise penetration
the fermentations āsava have become
extinguished, such a one is called a both-ways-liberated one.'' Cf.
In the widest sense, one is both-ways-liberated if one has reached one or
the other of the absorptions, and one or the other of the supra-mundane
paths cf. A.
The first liberation is also called 'liberation of mind'
ceto-vimutti the latter liberation
through understanding' paññā-vimutti.
The first liberation, however, is merely temporary, being a liberation through
Uccheda-ditthi: 'annihilation-view'; see:
consisting in the contemplation of rise and fall', is the first of the 9 insight-knowledges
constituting the purification by knowledge and vision of the
path-progress'. For details, see:
visuddhi VI. 1.
Uddhacca: 'restlessness', belongs to the 10 mental
chains samyojana, and to the 5 hindrances
nīvarana. It is one of those 4 mental properties inseparably associated with all disadvantageous consciousness
Uddhambhāgiya-samyojana: the 5
'higher mental chains'; see: samyojana
upstream to the highest gods', is one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners anāgāmī.
Ugghatitaññu: 'one who already during a given
explanation comes to penetrate the truth' Pug..
This is one of four types of persons classified according to their ability
of acquiring insight, mentioned in A.
IV, 133. Cf. also vipacitaññū, neyya,
pada-parama See The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw
171/174 p. 1ff.
UJukatā: kāya-, citta-: 'uprightness' of
mental properties and of consciousness, is associated with all pure consciousness. Cf.
asankhata- Contemplation of the
u. = animitta see:
Unconscious beings: asaññā-satta
pariññā - Right u.,
magga 1. sacca
Unit: s. kalāpa
Unprepared: unprompted: see:
Unshakable deliverance: s.
Unshakable one: the:
Unthinkable things: the 4:
Upacāra: 'moment of access'; see:
Upacāra-samādhi: 'neighbourhood or access-concentrationn',
is the degree of concentration just before entering any of the absorptions,
or jhānas It still belongs to the sense-sphere
Upacaya: rūpassa: 'growth of materiality'; see:
Upacchedaka-kamma: 'destructive kamma';
Upādāna: 'clinging', according to
Vis.M XVII, is an intensified degree of
craving tanhā. The 4 kinds of clinging are: sense-clinging
kāmupādāna, clinging to views ditthupādāna
clinging to mere rules and ritual sīlabbatupādāna, clinging to the personality-belief
1;What now is the sense-clinging? Whatever with regard to sense-objects
there exists of sense-lust, sense-desire, sense-attachment, sense-passion,
sense-confusedness, sense-mental chains: this is called sense-clinging.
2 ''What is the clinging to views? 'Food and offerings are useless; there
is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds: all such view and wrong conceptions
are called the clinging to views.
3;What is the clinging to mere rules and ritual? The holding firmly to the
view that through mere rules and ritual one may reach purification: this is
called the clinging to mere rules and ritual.
4;What is the clinging to the personality-belief? The 20 kinds of ego-views
with regard to the groups of existence see:
sakkāya-ditthi these are called
the clinging to the personality-belief; Dhs.
This traditional fourfold division of clinging is not quite satisfactory.
Besides kamupādāna we should expect either rūpupādāna and
arūpupādāna or simply bhavupādāna Though the Anāgāmī is entirely
free from the traditional 4 kinds of upādāna
he is not freed from rebirth, as he still possesses bhavupādāna The
Vis.M XVII, in trying to get out of this
dilemma, explains kāmupādāna as
including here all the remaining kinds of clinging.
Clinging' is the common rendering for u., though 'grasping' would
come closer to the literal meaning of it, which is 'uptake'; see: Three Cardinal
the 5 'groups of clinging', or more clearly stated in accordance with
Vis.M, 'the 5 groups of existence which
form the objects of clinging'. Cf. M. 44,
and see khandha
Upādā-rūpa: 'derived materiality', signifies
the 24 secondary material phenomena dependent on the 4 primary physical elements,
i.e. the sense-organs and sense-objects, etc. See
Upadhi: 'substratum of existence'. In the
Com. there are enumerated 4 kinds: the
5 groups khandha, sense-desire
kāma mental defilements
kilesa,, kamma. In the suttas it occurs
frequently in Sn. vv. 33, 364, 546, 728,
and, with reference to Nibbāna, in the phrase;the abandoning of all substrata;
D. 14. See
Upādi: lit. 'something which one grasps, to which
one clings, i.e. the 5 groups of existence
khandha. In the suttas, the word is mostly used in such expressions
as;One of the 2 fruits may be expected: either perfect understanding or, if the groups
are still remaining sati
upādi-sese 'if there is a remainder
of groups, Anāgāmīship; D. 22. Further
A. IV. 118:;Here the Perfect One has passed
into the Nibbāna-element in which no more groups are remaining anupādi-sesa
Cf. nibbāna upādinna-rūpa: 'kammically
acquired materiality', or 'matter clung-to by kamma', is identical with kamma-produced
materiality kammaja-rūpa, see:
Vis.M XIV it is said:;That materiality
which, later on, we shall refer to as 'kamma-produced' kammaja is, for
its being dependent on previous pre-natal kamma, called 'kammically acquired'.
'' The term upādinna occurs so in the suttas, e.g.
101, 62, 140. See
Dhs. §990; Khandha
UPaghātaka-kamma: 'destructive kamma';
Upahacca-parinibbāyī: 'one who reaches
Nibbāna within the first half of life',
is one of the 5 kinds of Anāgāmī.
Upakkilesa: 'impurities', corruptions, imperfections
a frequent rendering by 'defilements' is better reserved for
A list of 16 moral 'impurities of the mind' cittassa
upakkilesa is mentioned and explained
in M. 7 & 8 WHEEI. 61/62: 1. covetousness
and unrighteous greed abhijjhā-visamalobha 2. ill will vyāpāda.
anger kodha 4. hostility upanāha. denigration makkha 6.
domineering palāsa 7. envy issā
8. stinginess macchariya 9. hypocrisy
māyā 0. fraud sātheyya 11. obstinacy thambha 12. presumption
sārambha 13. conceit māna, 4. arrogance
atimāna 5. vanity
mada 16. negligence pamāda.
There are 3 groups of upakkilesa
pertaining to meditation:
a 9 mental imperfections occurring in 'one devoted to higher mental training'
adhicitta; 3 coarse ones - evil conduct in deeds, words and thoughts; 3 medium
- thoughts of sensual desire, ill will and cruelty; 3 subtle - thoughts about
one's relatives, one's country and one's reputation
A. III, 100.
b 18 imperfections in the practice of awareness or mindfulness of breathing
ānāpāna-sati, mentioned in
Pts.M., Ānāpāna-kathā tr. in Mindfulness
of Breathing, by ñānamoli Thera p. 60; BPS.
c 10 'imperfections of insight' -meditation,
Upanissaya-paccaya: 'decisive support'
or 'inducement', is one of the 24 conditions
ripening in the next birth'; see: kamma.
Upapatti-bhava: 'rebirth-process'; see:
Upapīlaka-kamma: 'suppressive kamma';
Upāsaka: lit. 'sitting close by', i.e. a 'lay
adherent', is any lay follower who is filled with faith and has taken refuge
in the Buddha, his doctrine and his community of Noble Disciples
A. VIII, 25. His virtue is regarded as pure
if he observes the 5 Precepts pañca-sīla
see: sikkhāpada He should avoid
the following wrong ways of livelihood: trading in arms, in living beings,
meat, alcohol and poison A. V, 177. See also
A. VIII, 75.
Upasamānussati: 'recollection of the peace
of Nibbāna', is the last of the 10 recollections
anussati.;Whatsoever, o Bhikkhus, there
are of things, as highest of them is considered detachment
virāga i.e. the crushing of conceit, the
stilling of thirst, the uprooting of clinging, the breaking through the round
of rebirths, cessation of craving, detachment, ceasing, Nibbāna;
A. IV, 34.
Upāsikā: 'female adherent'; see:
Upatthambhaka-kamma: 'supportive kamma';
Upekkhā: 'equanimity', also called tatra-majjhattatā,
is an ethical quality belonging to the sankhāra
group see: khandha and should therefore
not be confounded with indifferent feeling adukkha-m-asukhā vedanā which
sometimes also is called upekkhā see:
upekkhā is one of the 4 sublime
abodes brahma-vihāra, and of
the factors of enlightenment bojjhanga.
See Vis.M IV, 156ff.
as link to Awakening'; see: bojjhanga
Upekkhā-sukha: 'equanimous happiness,' is
the feeling of happiness accompanied by a high degree of equanimity
upekkhā as, e.g. in the 3rd absorption
Upekkhindriya: the 'ability of indifference',
is one of the 5 elements of feeling M.
115 and therefore not to be confounded with the ethical quality 'equanimity',
also called upekkhā
Upekkhopavicāra: 'indulging in indifference';
Uposatha: lit. 'fasting', i.e. 'fasting day',
is the full-moon day, the new-moon day, and the two days of the first and last
moonquarters. On full-moon and new-moon days, the Disciplinary Code, the
pātimokkha is read before the assembled
community of Bhikkhus Bhikkhu while
on the mentioned 4 moon-days many of the faithful lay devotees go to visit
the monasteries, and there take upon themselves the observance of the 8 rules
See A. VIII, 41ff.
Upstream to the highest gods:
passing: see: anāgāmī.
Usages: the 4 noble:
Utu: temperature, heat, is identical with the heat-element
Utu-samutthāna: - utuja-rūpa: 'materiality
produced by temperature'; samutthāna