The twenty-second of the twenty-four
Buddhas and the first of the five Buddhas of the present Bhaddakappa.
He was the
son of the brahmin Aggidatta, chaplain of Khemankara, king of Khemavatī, and
He was born in the Khema pleasaunce, and lived for four thousand years
in the household in three palaces - Ruci, Suruci and Vaddhana (or Rativaddhana).
His wife was Virocamānā (or Rocanī), and he had a son, Uttara.
He left the world
riding in a chariot, and practised austerities for only eight months.
Enlightenment, he was given a meal of milk-rice by the daughter of the brahmin
Vajirindha of the village Sucirindha, and grass for his seat by the yavapālaka
His bodhi was a Sirīsa-tree, and his first sermon was preached to
eighty-four thousand monks in the park near the city of Makila.
He performed the
Twin-Miracle under a Sāla-tree at the gates of Kannakujja. Among his converts
was a fierce yakkha named Naradeva.
He held only one assembly of his monks.
Kakusandha's body was forty cubits in height, and he died at the age of forty
thousand years in the Khema pleasaunce.
The thūpa erected over his relics was
one league high.
The Bodhisatta was at that time a king
named Khema. The Buddha's chief disciples were Vidhura and Sañjīva among monks,
and Sama and Campā among nuns. His personal attendant was Buddhija. Accuta and
Samana, Nandā and Sunandā were his most eminent lay-supporters (D.ii.7; Bu.xxiii;
J.i.42; BuA.209ff). Kakusandha kept the fast-day (uposatha) every year
(DhA.iii.236). In Kakusandha's time a Māra, named Dūsī (a previous birth of
Moggallāna), gave a great deal of trouble to the Buddha and his followers,
trying greatly the Buddha's patience (M.i.333ff; Thag.1187). The Samyutta Nikāya
(S.ii.190f) mentions that during the time of Kakusandha, the Mount Vepulla of
Rājagaha was named Pācīna-vamsa and the inhabitants were called Tivarā.
The monastery built by Accuta on the
site where, in the present age, Anāthapindika erected the Jetavanārāma, was half
a league in extent, and the ground was bought by golden kacchapas sufficient in
number to cover it (J.i.94).
According to the Ceylonese chronicles
(Dpv.ii.66; xv.25, 34; xvii.9, 16, etc.; Mhv.xv.57-90), Kakusandha paid a visit
to Ceylon. The island was then known as Ojadīpa and its capital was Abhayanagara,
where reigned King Abhaya. The Mahāmeghavana was called Mahātittha. The Buddha
came, with forty thousand disciples, to rid the island of a pestilence caused by
yakkhas and stood on the Devakūta mountain from where, by virtue of his own
desire, all inhabitants of the country could see him. The Buddha and his
disciples were invited to a meal by the king, and after the meal the Mahātittha
garden was presented to the Order; there the Buddha sat, in meditation, in order
to consecrate various spots connected with the religion. At the Buddha's wish,
the nun Rucānandā brought to the island a branch of the sacred bodhi-tree. The
Buddha gave to the people his own drinking-vessel as an object of worship, and
returned to Jambudīpa, leaving behind his disciples Mahādeva and Rucānandā to
look after the spiritual welfare of the new converts to the faith.
In Buddhist Sanskrit texts the name of
the Buddha is given as Krakucchanda (See especially Divy.254, 418f; Mtu.iii.247,
2. Kakusandha Thera. Author of the
Sinhalese Dhātuvamsa, probably a translation from the Pāli. He is generally
assigned to the fifteenth century. P.L.C.255.