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  • upāsaka

lit. 'sitting close by', i.e. a 'lay adherent', is any lay follower who is filled with faith and has taken refuge in the Buddha, his doctrine and his community of noble disciples (A.VIII.25).

His virtue is regarded as pure if he observes the 5 Precepts (pañca-sīla; s. sikkhāpada).

He should avoid the following wrong ways of livelihood:

  • trading in arms,

  • trading in living beings,

  • trading in meat,

  • trading in alcohol

  • trading in poison (A.V.177).

See also A.VIII.75.


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